"The structure of education in the United States"

Okay–12 – Wikipedia

Kindergarten to twelfth grade

Okay–12 (spoken as “k twelve”, “k through twelve”, or “k to twelve”), from kindergarten to twelfth grade, is an American expression that signifies the vary of years of publicly supported major and secondary schooling discovered within the United States, which is analogous to publicly supported faculty grades prior to varsity in a number of different international locations, akin to Afghanistan, Australia, Canada, Ecuador, China, Egypt, India, Iran, the Philippines, South Korea and Turkey.[1]


U.S. public schooling was conceived of within the late 18th century. In 1790, Pennsylvania grew to become the primary state to require some type of free schooling for everybody no matter whether or not they might afford it. New York handed related laws in 1805. In 1820, Massachusetts grew to become the primary state to create a tuition-free highschool, Boston English.[2]

The first Okay–12 public faculty methods appeared within the early nineteenth century. In the 1830s and 1840s, Ohioans have been taking a major curiosity within the concept of public schooling. At that cut-off date, colleges have been generally operated independently of every one other, with little try at uniformity. The Akron School Law of 1847 modified this. The metropolis of Akron unified the operations, curriculum and funding of native colleges right into a single public faculty district:

“Under the Akron School Law, there was to be one school district encompassing the entire city. Within that district would be a number of elementary schools, with students divided into separate “grades” based on achievement. When enough demand existed, the school board would establish a high school as well. Property taxes would pay for the new school system. A school board, elected by the community, would make decisions about the system’s management and hire the necessary professionals to run each school. Illustrating the racism that existed in Ohio during this era, the Akron School Law excluded African-American children from the public school system.”[3]

In 1849, the state of Ohio enacted a legislation modeled after the Akron legislation which prolonged the concept of faculty districts to cowl the remainder of the state.

By 1930, all 48 states had handed legal guidelines making schooling obligatory, and in 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), which dedicated the federal authorities to important ongoing expenditures to every state for the aim of sustaining native Okay–12 faculty methods. The ESEA basically made Okay–12 schooling the legislation of the land.[4]

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Since its inception, public Okay–12 has been debated and topic to a number of waves of reform all through the twentieth and twenty first centuries. In the Nineteen Eighties, Reagan’s ‘A Nation at Risk’ initiative included provisions requiring public schooling to be evaluated based mostly on requirements, and trainer pay to be based mostly on evaluations. In the Nineteen Nineties, the Goals 2000 Act and the “Improving America’s Schools” act supplied extra federal funding to states to bolster native Okay–12 methods. This was adopted within the 2000s by a rigorous uptick in standards-based evaluations with the No Child Left Behind Act, and the Race to the Top Act. In 2015, President Barack Obama signed the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), which returned some energy to state governments with respect to evaluations and requirements.[5]


The expression “K-12” is a shortening of kindergarten (Okay) for 5- 6 12 months olds by way of twelfth grade (12) for 17- 18 year-olds, as the primary and final grades,
respectively, of free schooling[6] in these international locations. The associated time period “P–12” can also be often utilized in Australia and the United States to discuss with the sum of Okay–12 plus preschool schooling.[7][8]

The picture on the proper is a desk that defines the schooling system within the United States. The desk reveals the development of the schooling system beginning with the fundamental Okay–12 system then progressing by way of post-secondary schooling. Okay–14 refers to Okay–12 plus two years of post-secondary the place coaching was obtained from vocational-technical establishments or neighborhood or junior schools. The Okay numbers discuss with the years of academic attainment and continues to progress upward accordingly relying on the diploma being sought.[9]

The time period is usually used as a type of shorthand to collectively discuss with everything of major and secondary schooling, as it’s a lot simpler than having to say one is referring within the combination to elementary, center, and highschool schooling. However, it’s uncommon for a college district to truly train all Okay–12 grades at one unified faculty campus. Even the smallest faculty districts attempt to preserve, at a minimal, a two-tier distinction between an elementary faculty (Okay–8) and a highschool (9–12).

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The time period is usually utilized in faculty web site URLs, usually showing earlier than the nation code top-level area (or within the United States, the state top-level area). The phrases “PK–12”, “PreK–12”, or “Pre-K–12” are typically used so as to add pre-kindergarten.

It can also be utilized by American multinationals promoting into the tutorial sector,[10] akin to Dell the place UK prospects are offered with this as a market phase selection.[11]

In Australia, P–12 [12] is usually used rather than Okay–12, notably in Queensland, the place it’s used as an official time period within the curriculum framework.[13] P–12 colleges serve kids for the 13 years from prep till Year 12,[14] with out together with the separate kindergarten part. In Canada (Nova Scotia) P–12 is used generally rather than Okay–12 and serves students from grade Primary by way of 12.

Okay–14, Okay–16, Okay–18 and Okay–20[edit]

Okay–14 schooling additionally contains neighborhood schools (the primary two years of college). Okay–16 schooling[15] provides a four-year undergraduate college diploma. For simplicity functions schooling shorthand was created to indicate particular schooling ranges of accomplishment. This shorthand is usually utilized in articles, publications and academic laws. The following checklist incorporates essentially the most generally discovered shorthand descriptors:

  • P–14: Pre-school to affiliate diploma
  • P–16: Pre-school to bachelor’s diploma
  • P–18: Pre-school to grasp’s diploma
  • P–20: Pre-school to graduate diploma
  • Okay–14: Kindergarten to affiliate diploma
  • Okay–16: Kindergarten to bachelor’s diploma
  • Okay–18: Kindergarten to grasp’s diploma
  • Okay–20: Kindergarten to graduate diploma

The Career Technical Education (CTE) Unit of the California Community College Economic Development and Workforce Preparation Division focuses on program coordination and advocacy, coverage growth and coordination with Okay–18 workforce preparation and profession and technical schooling methods.[16]

The ASCCC Chancellor’s Office Career Technical Education (CTE) Unit[17] of the Economic Development and Workforce Preparation Division focuses on program coordination and advocacy, coverage growth and coordination with Okay–18 workforce preparation and profession and technical schooling methods. Responsible for the implementation of the Vocational and Technical Education Act (VTEA), managing and coordinating actions that affect different interagency and intra-agency targets. In addition, the CTE Unit can also be liable for the event, dissemination, and implementation of the California State Plan and the annual efficiency stories.[18]

Further reference to Okay–18 schooling could be discovered on this publication by Ann Diver-Stamnes and Linda Catelli[19] in chapter 4 “College/University Partnership Projects for Instituting Change and Improvement in K–18 Education”.

See additionally[edit]


  1. ^ Glavin, Chris (2014-02-06). “Education in the United States | K12 Academics”. www.k12academics.com. Retrieved 2018-07-23.
  2. ^ Hornbeck, Dustin (2017-04-26). “Federal role in education has a long history | The Conversation”. www.theconversation.com. Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  3. ^ “Akron School Law | Ohio History Central”. www.ohiohistorycentral.org/. Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  4. ^ Hornbeck, Dustin (2017-04-26). “Federal role in education has a long history | The Conversation”. www.theconversation.com. Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  5. ^ Finn, Chester, Jr. (2013-03-14). “Short History of K-12 Reform | Hoover Institute”. www.hoover.org. Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  6. ^ “Online Education Programs & Schooling | K12”. K12. Retrieved 2018-07-23.
  7. ^ Heritage College Cooranbong Archived 2011-07-23 on the Wayback Machine, NSW, Australia
  8. ^ “P–12 | US Department of Education”. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  9. ^ “Digest of Education Statistics, 2012”. nces.ed.gov. Retrieved 2018-02-05.
  10. ^ “Top 14 Companies in the Smart Education and eLearning Industry | Technavio”. www.technavio.com. Retrieved 2018-07-23.
  11. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the unique on 2011-07-11. Retrieved 2011-07-04.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (hyperlink)
  12. ^ Training, Department of Education and. “P-12 curriculum, assessment and reporting framework”. schooling.qld.gov.au. Archived from the unique on 2014-08-04. Retrieved 2018-07-23.
  13. ^ P–12 Curriculum Framework Archived 2014-08-04 on the Wayback Machine – schooling.qld.gov.au. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
  14. ^ “Why is P–12 career education important?”. Department of Education and Training (Queensland). 2004. Archived from the unique on 2009-12-15. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
  15. ^ “Why we need a K-16 education system – The Hechinger Report”. The Hechinger Report. 2010-05-11. Retrieved 2018-07-23.
  16. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the unique on 2007-10-17. Retrieved 2012-08-27.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (hyperlink) http://www.desertcolleges.org/Faculty/Career.htm
  17. ^ “CTE Community Collaborative : Career Technical Education (CTE)”. www.berkeleycitycollege.edu. Archived from the unique on 2018-07-23. Retrieved 2018-07-23.
  18. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the unique on 2012-09-08. Retrieved 2012-08-27.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (hyperlink)
  19. ^ Barnes & Noble. “Commitment to Excellence: Transforming Teaching and Teacher Education in Inner-City and Urban Settings”. Barnes & Noble. Retrieved 5 February 2018.

Further studying[edit]