Herbert Hoover - Wikipedia

Herbert Hoover – Wikipedia

thirty first president of the United States (1929–33)

Herbert Hoover

President Hoover portrait.jpg

Hoover in 1928

In workplace
March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933
Vice President Charles Curtis
Preceded by Calvin Coolidge
Succeeded by Franklin D. Roosevelt
In workplace
March 5, 1921 – August 21, 1928
President
Preceded by Joshua W. Alexander
Succeeded by William F. Whiting
In workplace
August 21, 1917 – November 16, 1918
President Woodrow Wilson
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Position abolished
In workplace
October 22, 1914 – April 14, 1917
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Position abolished
Born

Herbert Clark Hoover

(1874-08-10)August 10, 1874
West Branch, Iowa, U.S.

Died October 20, 1964(1964-10-20) (aged 90)
New York City, U.S.
Resting place Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum
Political occasion Republican
Spouse(s)
Children
Education Stanford University (BS)
Occupation
Signature Cursive signature in ink

Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American politician and engineer who served because the thirty first president of the United States from 1929 to 1933 and a member of the Republican Party, holding workplace throughout the onset of the Great Depression. Before serving as president, Hoover led the Commission for Relief in Belgium, served because the director of the U.S. Food Administration, and served because the third U.S. secretary of commerce.

Hoover was born to a Quaker household in West Branch, Iowa, however he grew up in Oregon.[1] He took a place with a London-based mining firm after graduating from Stanford University in 1895. After the outbreak of World War I, he grew to become the pinnacle of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, a world reduction group that offered meals to occupied Belgium. When the U.S. entered the conflict, President Woodrow Wilson appointed Hoover to guide the Food Administration, and Hoover grew to become often called the nation’s “food czar”. After the conflict, Hoover led the American Relief Administration, which offered meals to the inhabitants of Central and Eastern Europe. Hoover’s wartime service made him a favourite of many progressives, and he unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination within the 1920 presidential election.

President Warren G. Harding appointed Hoover as Secretary of Commerce in 1920, and he continued to serve below President Calvin Coolidge after Harding died in 1923. Hoover was an unusually lively and visual Cabinet member, turning into often called “Secretary of Commerce and Under-Secretary of all other departments”. He was influential within the improvement of air journey and radio. He led the federal response to the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927. Hoover gained the Republican nomination within the 1928 presidential election, and decisively defeated Democratic candidate Al Smith. The inventory market crashed shortly after Hoover took workplace, and the Great Depression grew to become the central subject of his presidency. Hoover pursued a wide range of insurance policies in an try to raise the financial system, however opposed straight involving the federal authorities in reduction efforts.

In the midst of the financial disaster, Hoover was decisively defeated by Democratic nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt within the 1932 presidential election. Hoover’s retirement was over 31 years lengthy, one of many longest presidential retirements. He authored quite a few works and have become more and more conservative in retirement. He strongly criticized Roosevelt’s overseas coverage and New Deal home agenda. In the Nineteen Forties and Nineteen Fifties, public opinion of Hoover improved as a result of he served in varied assignments for presidents Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower, together with chairing the Hoover Commission. Nonetheless, Hoover is usually thought to be a below-average U.S. president, and most polls of historians and political scientists rank him within the backside third general.

Early life

Herbert Hoover was born on August 10, 1874, in West Branch, Iowa.[a] His father, Jesse Hoover, was a blacksmith and farm implement retailer proprietor of German, Swiss, and English ancestry. Hoover’s mom, Hulda Randall Minthorn, was raised in Norwich, Ontario, Canada, earlier than transferring to Iowa in 1859. Like most different residents of West Branch, Jesse and Hulda had been Quakers. Around age two “Bertie”, as he was referred to as throughout that point, contracted a severe bout of croup, and was momentarily thought to have died till resuscitated by his uncle, John Minthorn.[4] As a younger baby he was typically referred to by his father as “my little stick in the mud” when he repeatedly acquired trapped within the mud crossing the unpaved road.[5] Herbert’s household figured prominently within the city’s public prayer life, due nearly fully to mom Hulda’s function within the church.[6] As a baby, Hoover constantly attended faculties, however he did little studying on his personal except for the Bible. Hoover’s father, famous by the native paper for his “pleasant, sunshiny disposition”, died in 1880 on the age of 34. Hoover’s mom died in 1884, leaving Hoover, his older brother, Theodore, and his youthful sister, May, as orphans. Hoover lived the subsequent 18 months along with his uncle Allen Hoover at a close-by farm.[10][11]

In November 1885, Hoover was despatched to Newberg, Oregon, to stay along with his uncle John Minthorn, a Quaker doctor and businessman whose personal son had died the 12 months earlier than.[12] The Minthorn family was thought-about cultured and academic, and imparted a powerful work ethic. Much like West Branch, Newberg was a frontier city settled largely by Midwestern Quakers. Minthorn ensured that Hoover obtained an schooling, however Hoover disliked the numerous chores assigned to him and sometimes resented Minthorn. One observer described Hoover as “an orphan [who] seemed to be neglected in many ways”. Hoover attended Friends Pacific Academy (now George Fox University), however dropped out on the age of 13 to change into an workplace assistant for his uncle’s actual property workplace (Oregon Land Company)[16] in Salem, Oregon. Though he didn’t attend highschool, Hoover realized bookkeeping, typing, and arithmetic at an evening college.

Hoover was a member of the inaugural “Pioneer Class” of Stanford University, coming into in 1891 regardless of failing all the doorway exams besides arithmetic.[b] During his freshman 12 months, he switched his main from mechanical engineering to geology after working for John Casper Branner, the chair of Stanford’s geology division. During his sophomore 12 months, to scale back his prices, Hoover co-founded the primary student housing cooperative at Stanford, “Romero Hall”.[20] Hoover was a mediocre student, and he spent a lot of his time working in varied part-time jobs or collaborating in campus actions. Though he was initially shy amongst fellow students, Hoover gained election as student treasurer and have become recognized for his distaste for fraternities and sororities. He served as student supervisor of each the baseball and soccer groups, and helped set up the inaugural Big Game versus the University of California.[23] During the summers earlier than and after his senior 12 months, Hoover interned below financial geologist Waldemar Lindgren of the United States Geological Survey; these experiences satisfied Hoover to pursue a profession as a mining geologist.

Mining engineer

Bewick, Moreing

Hoover, aged 23; taken in Perth, Western Australia, in 1898

When Hoover graduated from Stanford in 1895, the nation was within the midst of the Panic of 1893, and he initially struggled to discover a job. He labored in varied low-level mining jobs within the Sierra Nevada Mountains till he satisfied distinguished mining engineer Louis Janin to rent him. After working as a mine scout for a 12 months, Hoover was employed by Bewick, Moreing & Co., a London-based firm that operated gold mines in Western Australia. Hoover first went to Coolgardie, then the middle of the Eastern Goldfields. Though Hoover obtained a $5,000 wage (equal to $155,540 in 2020), situations had been harsh within the goldfields.[27] Hoover described the Coolgardie and Murchison rangelands on the sting of the Great Victoria Desert as a land of “black flies, red dust and white heat”.[28]

Hoover traveled continually throughout the Outback to guage and handle the corporate’s mines. He satisfied Bewick, Moreing to buy the Sons of Gwalia gold mine, which proved to be one of the profitable mines within the area. Partly as a result of Hoover’s efforts, the corporate ultimately managed roughly 50 p.c of gold manufacturing in Western Australia. Hoover introduced in lots of Italian immigrants to chop prices and counter the labour motion of the Australian miners.[32][33] During his time with the mining firm, Hoover grew to become against measures such at least wage and employees’ compensation, feeling that they had been unfair to homeowners. Hoover’s work impressed his employers, and in 1898 he was promoted to junior accomplice. An open feud developed between Hoover and his boss, Ernest Williams, however firm leaders defused the state of affairs by providing Hoover a compelling place in China.

Lou Henry, age 17, on a burro and rifle-ready at Acton, California on August 22, 1891

Upon arriving in China, Hoover developed gold mines close to Tianjin on behalf of Bewick, Moreing and the Chinese-owned Chinese Engineering and Mining Company. He grew to become deeply thinking about Chinese historical past, however gave up on studying the language to a fluent degree. He publicly warned that Chinese employees had been inefficient and racially inferior. He made suggestions to enhance the lot of the Chinese employee, searching for to finish the observe of imposing long-term servitude contracts and to institute reforms for employees primarily based on benefit. The Boxer Rebellion broke out shortly after Hoover arrived in China, trapping the Hoovers and quite a few different overseas nationals till a multi-national army pressure defeated Boxer forces within the Battle of Tientsin. Fearing the upcoming collapse of the Chinese authorities, the director of the Chinese Engineering and Mining Company agreed to determine a brand new Sino-British enterprise with Bewick, Moreing. After Hoover and Bewick, Moreing established efficient management over the brand new Chinese mining firm, Hoover grew to become the working accomplice of Bewick, Moreing in late 1901.

As working accomplice, Hoover frequently traveled the world on behalf of Bewick, Moreing, visiting mines operated by the corporate on completely different continents. Beginning in December 1902, the corporate confronted mounting authorized and monetary points after one of many companions admitted to having fraudulently offered inventory in a mine. More points arose in 1904, after the British authorities fashioned two separate royal commissions to research Bewick, Moreing’s labor practices and monetary dealings in Western Australia. After the corporate misplaced a go well with Hoover started on the lookout for a option to get out of the partnership, and he offered his shares in mid-1908.

Sole proprietor

Hoover in his 30s whereas a mining engineer

After leaving Bewick, Moreing, Hoover labored as a London-based unbiased mining advisor and financier. Though he had risen to prominence as a geologist and mine operator, Hoover centered a lot of his consideration on elevating cash, restructuring company organizations, and financing new ventures. He specialised in rejuvenating troubled mining operations, taking a share of the income in change for his technical and monetary experience. Hoover considered himself and his associates as “engineering doctors to sick concerns”, and he earned a popularity as a “doctor of sick mines”. He made investments on each continent and had places of work in San Francisco; London; New York City; Paris; Petrograd; and Mandalay, British Burma.[44] By 1914, Hoover was a really rich man, with an estimated private fortune of $4 million (equal to $103.35 million in 2020).

He co-founded the Zinc Corporation to extract zinc close to the Australian metropolis of Broken Hill, New South Wales. The Zinc Corporation developed the froth flotation course of to extract zinc from lead-silver ore and operated the world’s first selective ore differential flotation plant.[48] Hoover labored with the Burma Corporation, a British agency that produced silver, lead, and zinc in giant portions on the Namtu Bawdwin Mine.[49]: 90–96, 101–102  He additionally helped improve copper manufacturing in Kyshtym, Russia, by way of using pyritic smelting. He additionally agreed to handle a separate mine within the Altai Mountains that, in line with Hoover, “developed probably the greatest and richest single body of ore known in the world”.[49]: 102–108 [51]

In his spare time, Hoover wrote. His lectures at Columbia and Stanford universities had been revealed in 1909 as Principles of Mining, which grew to become a regular textbook. The e book displays his transfer in the direction of progressive beliefs, as Hoover got here to endorse eight-hour workdays and arranged labor. Hoover grew to become deeply within the historical past of science, and he was particularly drawn to the De re metallica, an influential sixteenth century work on mining and metallurgy by Georgius Agricola. In 1912, Hoover and his spouse revealed the primary English translation of De re metallica. Hoover additionally joined the board of trustees at Stanford, and led a profitable marketing campaign to nominate John Branner because the college’s president.

Marriage and household

Hoover along with his son Allan (left) and his grandson Andrew (above), 1950

During his senior 12 months at Stanford, Hoover grew to become smitten with a classmate named Lou Henry, although his monetary state of affairs precluded marriage at the moment. The daughter of a banker from Monterey, California, Lou Henry determined to review geology at Stanford after attending a lecture delivered by John Branner. Immediately after incomes a promotion in 1898, Hoover cabled Lou Henry, asking her to marry him. After she cabled again her acceptance of the proposal, Hoover briefly returned to the United States for his or her wedding ceremony. They would stay married till Lou Henry Hoover’s loss of life in 1944. Though his Quaker upbringing strongly influenced his profession, Hoover hardly ever attended Quaker conferences throughout his grownup life.[58] Hoover and his spouse had two youngsters: Herbert Hoover Jr. (born in 1903) and Allan Henry Hoover (born in 1907). The Hoover household started residing in London in 1902, although they continuously traveled as a part of Hoover’s profession. After 1916, the Hoovers started residing within the United States, sustaining properties in Palo Alto, California, and Washington, D.C.

World War I and aftermath

Relief in Europe

World War I broke out in August 1914, pitting the Allied Powers (France, Russia, the British Empire, Belgium, and different nations) towards the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and different nations). Hoover and different London-based American businessmen established a committee to arrange the return of the roughly 100,000 Americans stranded in Europe. Hoover was appointed because the committee’s chair and, with the assent of Congress and the Wilson administration, took cost of the distribution of reduction to Americans in Europe. Hoover later acknowledged, “I did not realize it at the moment, but on August 3, 1914, my career was over forever. I was on the slippery road of public life.”[62] By early October 1914, Hoover’s group had distributed reduction to at the very least 40,000 Americans.

The German invasion of Belgium in August 1914 set off a meals disaster in Belgium, which relied closely on meals imports. The Germans refused to take accountability for feeding Belgian residents in captured territory, and the British refused to raise their blockade of German-occupied Belgium until the U.S. authorities supervised Belgian meals imports as a impartial occasion within the conflict. With the cooperation of the Wilson administration and the CNSA, a Belgian reduction group, Hoover established the Commission for Relief in Belgium (CRB). The CRB obtained and imported tens of millions of tons of foodstuffs for the CNSA to distribute, and helped make sure that the German military didn’t applicable the meals. Private donations and authorities grants provided nearly all of its $11-million-a-month finances, and the CRB grew to become a veritable unbiased republic of reduction, with its personal flag, navy, factories, mills, and railroads. A British official described the CRB as a “piratical state organized for benevolence”.

Hoover labored 14-hour days from London, administering the distribution of over two million tons of meals to 9 million conflict victims. In an early type of shuttle diplomacy, he crossed the North Sea forty occasions to fulfill with German authorities and persuade them to permit meals shipments.[68] He additionally satisfied British Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George to permit people to ship cash to the individuals of Belgium, thereby lessening workload of the CRB. At the request of the French authorities, the CRB started delivering provides to the individuals of German-occupied Northern France in 1915. American diplomat Walter Page described Hoover as “probably the only man living who has privately (i.e., without holding office) negotiated understandings with the British, French, German, Dutch, and Belgian governments”.[70][71]

U.S. Food Administration

The United States declared conflict upon Germany in April 1917 after Germany engaged in unrestricted submarine warfare towards American vessels in British waters. With the U.S. mobilizing for conflict, President Woodrow Wilson appointed Hoover to move the U.S. Food Administration, which was charged with making certain the nation’s meals wants throughout the conflict. Hoover had hoped to affix the administration in some capability since at the very least 1916, and he obtained the place after lobbying a number of members of Congress and Wilson’s confidant, Edward M. House. Earning the appellation of “food czar”, Hoover recruited a volunteer pressure of a whole lot of 1000’s of ladies and deployed propaganda in film theaters, faculties, and church buildings. He fastidiously chosen males to help within the company management—Alonzo Taylor (technical skills), Robert Taft (political associations), Gifford Pinchot (agricultural affect), and Julius Barnes (enterprise acumen).

World War I had created a worldwide meals disaster that dramatically elevated meals costs and prompted meals riots and hunger within the nations at conflict. Hoover’s chief objective as meals czar was to supply provides to the Allied Powers, however he additionally sought to stabilize home costs and to forestall home shortages. Under the broad powers granted by the Food and Fuel Control Act, the Food Administration supervised meals manufacturing all through the United States, and the administration made use of its authority to purchase, import, retailer, and promote meals. Determined to keep away from rationing, Hoover established set days for individuals to keep away from consuming specified meals and save them for troopers’ rations: meatless Mondays, wheatless Wednesdays, and “when in doubt, eat potatoes”. These insurance policies had been dubbed “Hooverizing” by authorities publicists, despite Hoover’s continuous orders that publicity mustn’t point out him by identify. The Food Administration shipped 23 million metric tons of meals to the Allied Powers, stopping their collapse and incomes Hoover nice acclaim. As head of the Food Administration, Hoover gained a following within the United States, particularly amongst progressives who noticed in Hoover an skilled administrator and image of effectivity.

Post-war reduction

World War I got here to an finish in November 1918, however Europe continued to face a important meals state of affairs; Hoover estimated that as many as 400 million individuals confronted the opportunity of hunger. The United States Food Administration grew to become the American Relief Administration (ARA), and Hoover was charged with offering meals to Central and Eastern Europe. In addition to offering reduction, the ARA rebuilt infrastructure in an effort to rejuvenate the financial system of Europe. Throughout the Paris Peace Conference, Hoover served as a detailed adviser to President Wilson, and he largely shared Wilson’s objectives of creating the League of Nations, settling borders on the idea of self-determination, and refraining from inflicting a harsh punishment on the defeated Central Powers. The following 12 months, famed British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote in The Economic Consequences of the Peace that if Hoover’s realism, “knowledge, magnanimity and disinterestedness” had discovered wider play within the councils of Paris, the world would have had “the Good Peace”. After U.S. authorities funding for the ARA expired in mid-1919, Hoover reworked the ARA into a personal group, elevating tens of millions of {dollars} from personal donors. He additionally established the European Children’s Fund, which offered reduction to fifteen million youngsters throughout fourteen nations.

Despite the opposition of Senator Henry Cabot Lodge and different Republicans, Hoover offered help to the defeated German nation after the conflict, in addition to reduction to famine-stricken Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Hoover condemned the Bolsheviks, however warned President Wilson towards an intervention within the Russian Civil War, as he seen the White Russian forces as little higher than the Bolsheviks and feared the opportunity of a protracted U.S. involvement. The Russian famine of 1921–22 claimed six million individuals, however the intervention of the ARA probably saved tens of millions of lives.[89] When requested if he was not serving to Bolshevism by offering reduction, Hoover acknowledged, “twenty million people are starving. Whatever their politics, they shall be fed!” Reflecting the gratitude of many Europeans, in July 1922, Soviet writer Maxim Gorky instructed Hoover that “your help will enter history as a unique, gigantic achievement, worthy of the greatest glory, which will long remain in the memory of millions of Russians whom you have saved from death”.[90]

In 1919, Hoover established the Hoover War Collection at Stanford University. He donated all of the recordsdata of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, the U.S. Food Administration, and the American Relief Administration, and pledged $50,000 as an endowment (equal to $746,353 in 2020). Scholars had been despatched to Europe to gather pamphlets, society publications, authorities paperwork, newspapers, posters, proclamations, and different ephemeral supplies associated to the conflict and the revolutions that adopted it. The assortment was renamed the Hoover War Library in 1922 and is now often called the Hoover Institution Library and Archives.[91] During the post-war interval, Hoover additionally served because the president of the Federated American Engineering Societies.[92][93]

1920 election

Hoover had been little recognized among the many American public earlier than 1914, however his service within the Wilson administration established him as a contender within the 1920 presidential election. Hoover’s wartime push for increased taxes, criticism of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer’s actions throughout the First Red Scare, and his advocacy for measures such because the minimal wage, forty-eight-hour workweek, and elimination of kid labor made him interesting to progressives of each events. Despite his service within the Democratic administration of Woodrow Wilson, Hoover had by no means been intently affiliated with both the Democrats or the Republicans. He initially sought to keep away from committing to any occasion within the 1920 election, hoping that both of the 2 main events would draft him for president at their nationwide conventions. In March 1920, he modified technique and declared himself a Republican; he was motivated largely by the assumption that the Democrats had little likelihood of profitable. Despite his nationwide renown, Hoover’s service within the Wilson administration had alienated farmers and the conservative Old Guard of the GOP, and his presidential candidacy fizzled out after his defeat within the California major by favourite son Hiram Johnson. At the 1920 Republican National Convention, Warren G. Harding emerged as a compromise candidate after the conference grew to become deadlocked between supporters of Johnson, Leonard Wood, and Frank Orren Lowden. Hoover backed Harding’s profitable marketing campaign within the common election, and he started laying the groundwork for a future presidential run by constructing a base of sturdy supporters within the Republican Party.

Secretary of Commerce (1921–1928)

Assistants William McCracken (left) and Walter Drake (proper) with Secretary Hoover (heart)

After his election as president in 1920, Harding rewarded Hoover for his assist, providing to nominate him as both Secretary of the Interior or Secretary of Commerce. Secretary of Commerce was thought-about a minor Cabinet publish, with restricted and vaguely outlined duties, however Hoover determined to simply accept the place. Hoover’s progressive stances, persevering with assist for the League of Nations, and up to date conversion to the Republican Party aroused opposition to his appointment from many Senate Republicans. To overcome this opposition, Harding paired Hoover’s nomination with that of conservative favourite Andrew Mellon as Secretary of the Treasury, and the nominations of each Hoover and Mellon had been confirmed by the Senate. Hoover would function Secretary of Commerce from 1921 to 1929, serving below Harding and, after Harding’s loss of life in 1923, President Calvin Coolidge. While among the most distinguished members of the Harding administration, together with Attorney General Harry M. Daugherty and Secretary of Interior Albert B. Fall, had been implicated in main scandals, Hoover emerged largely unscathed from investigations into the Harding administration.

Hoover envisioned the Commerce Department because the hub of the nation’s development and stability. His expertise mobilizing the war-time financial system satisfied him that the federal authorities may promote effectivity by eliminating waste, rising manufacturing, encouraging the adoption of data-based practices, investing in infrastructure, and conserving pure assets. Contemporaries described Hoover’s method as a “third alternative” between “unrestrained capitalism” and socialism, which was turning into more and more well-liked in Europe. Hoover sought to foster a steadiness amongst labor, capital, and the federal government, and for this he has been variously labeled a corporatist or an associationalist.

Hoover demanded, and obtained, authority to coordinate financial affairs all through the federal government. He created many sub-departments and committees, overseeing and regulating every part from manufacturing statistics to air journey. In some situations he “seized” management of duties from different Cabinet departments when he deemed that they weren’t finishing up their duties effectively; some started referring to him because the “Secretary of Commerce and Under-Secretary of all other departments”. In response to the Depression of 1920–21, he satisfied Harding to assemble a presidential fee on unemployment, which inspired native governments to have interaction in countercyclical infrastructure spending. He endorsed a lot of Mellon’s tax discount program, however favored a extra progressive tax system and opposed the treasury secretary’s efforts to get rid of the property tax.

Radio and journey

Between 1923 and 1929, the variety of households with radios grew from 300,000 to 10 million, and Hoover’s tenure as Secretary of Commerce closely influenced radio use within the United States. In the early and mid-Nineteen Twenties, Hoover’s radio conferences performed a key function within the group, improvement, and regulation of radio broadcasting. Hoover additionally helped go the Radio Act of 1927, which allowed the federal government to intervene and abolish radio stations that had been deemed “non-useful” to the general public. Hoover’s makes an attempt at regulating radio weren’t supported by all congressmen, and he obtained a lot opposition from the Senate and from radio station homeowners.[107][108][109]

Hoover was additionally influential within the early improvement of air journey, and he sought to create a thriving personal business boosted by oblique authorities subsidies. He inspired the event of emergency touchdown fields, required all runways to be geared up with lights and radio beams, and inspired farmers to utilize planes for crop dusting. He additionally established the federal authorities’s energy to examine planes and license pilots, setting a precedent for the later Federal Aviation Administration.

As Commerce Secretary, Hoover hosted nationwide conferences on road site visitors collectively often called the National Conference on Street and Highway Safety. Hoover’s chief goal was to handle the rising casualty toll of site visitors accidents, however the scope of the conferences grew and shortly embraced motorcar requirements, guidelines of the highway, and concrete site visitors management. He left the invited curiosity teams to barter agreements amongst themselves, which had been then introduced for adoption by states and localities. Because automotive commerce associations had been one of the best organized, lots of the positions taken by the conferences mirrored their pursuits. The conferences issued a mannequin Uniform Vehicle Code for adoption by the states, and a Model Municipal Traffic Ordinance for adoption by cities. Both had been broadly influential, selling better uniformity between jurisdictions and tending to advertise the auto’s precedence in metropolis streets.[112]

Hoover’s picture constructing

Phillips Payson O’Brien argues that Hoover had a Britain downside. He had spent so a few years residing in Britain and Australia, as an worker of British firms, there was a danger that he could be labeled a British device. There had been three options, all of which he tried in shut collaboration with the media, which enormously admired him.[113] First got here the picture of the dispassionate scientist, emotionally uninvolved however all the time dedicated to discovering and implementing the very best resolution. The second resolution was to realize the popularity of a humanitarian, deeply involved with the world’s troubles, akin to famine in Belgium, in addition to particular American issues which he had solved as meals commissioner throughout the world conflict. The third resolution to was to fall again on that outdated tactic of twisting the British tail. He employed that resolution in 1925–1926 within the worldwide rubber disaster. The American auto business consumed 70% of the world’s output, however British buyers managed a lot of the provision. Their plan was to drastically reduce on output from British Malaya, which had the impact of tripling rubber costs. Hoover energetically gave a sequence of speeches and interviews denouncing the monopolistic observe, and demanding that it’s ended. The American State Department needed no such disaster and compromised the difficulty in 1926. By then Hoover had solved his picture downside, and through his 1928 marketing campaign he efficiently squelched assaults that alleged he was too near British pursuits.[114]

Other initiatives

With the objective of encouraging sensible enterprise investments, Hoover made the Commerce Department a clearinghouse of knowledge. He recruited quite a few teachers from varied fields and tasked them with publishing reviews on completely different points of the financial system, together with metal manufacturing and movies. To get rid of waste, he inspired standardization of merchandise like vehicle tires and child bottle nipples. Other efforts at eliminating waste included lowering labor losses from commerce disputes and seasonal fluctuations, lowering industrial losses from accident and damage, and lowering the quantity of crude oil spilled throughout extraction and delivery. He promoted worldwide commerce by opening abroad places of work to advise businessmen. Hoover was particularly keen to advertise Hollywood movies abroad. His “Own Your Own Home” marketing campaign was a collaboration to advertise possession of single-family dwellings, with teams such because the Better Houses in America motion, the Architects’ Small House Service Bureau, and the Home Modernizing Bureau. He labored with bankers and the financial savings and loan business to advertise the brand new long-term residence mortgage, which dramatically stimulated residence development.[117] Other accomplishments included profitable the settlement of U.S. Steel to undertake an eight-hour workday, and the fostering of the Colorado River Compact, a water rights compact amongst Southwestern states.

Mississippi flood

The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 broke the banks and levees of the decrease Mississippi River in early 1927, ensuing within the flooding of tens of millions of acres and leaving 1.5 million individuals displaced from their properties. Although catastrophe response didn’t fall below the duties of the Commerce Department, the governors of six states alongside the Mississippi River particularly requested President Coolidge to nominate Hoover to coordinate the response to the flood. Believing that catastrophe response was not the area of the federal authorities, Coolidge initially refused to change into concerned, however he ultimately acceded to political strain and appointed Hoover to chair a particular committee to assist the area. Hoover established over 100 tent cities and a fleet of greater than 600 vessels, and raised $17 million (equal to $253.27 million in 2020). In giant half as a result of his management throughout the flood disaster, by 1928, Hoover had begun to overshadow President Coolidge himself. Though Hoover obtained large popularity of his function within the disaster, he ordered the suppression of reviews of mistreatment of African Americans in refugee camps. He did so with the cooperation of African-American chief Robert Russa Moton, who was promised unprecedented affect as soon as Hoover grew to become president.[122]

Presidential election of 1928

Hoover quietly constructed up assist for a future presidential bid all through the Nineteen Twenties, however he fastidiously prevented alienating Coolidge, who was eligible to run for an additional time period within the 1928 presidential election. Along with the remainder of the nation, he was shocked when Coolidge introduced in August 1927 that he wouldn’t search one other time period. With the approaching retirement of Coolidge, Hoover instantly emerged because the front-runner for the 1928 Republican nomination, and he shortly put collectively a powerful marketing campaign workforce led by Hubert Work, Will H. Hays, and Reed Smoot. Coolidge was unwilling to anoint Hoover as his successor; on one event he remarked that, “for six years that man has given me unsolicited advice—all of it bad”. Despite his lukewarm emotions in the direction of Hoover, Coolidge had no want to separate the occasion by publicly opposing the favored Commerce Secretary’s candidacy.

Many cautious Republican leaders solid about for another candidate, akin to Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon or former secretary of state Charles Evans Hughes.[127] However, Hughes and Mellon declined to run, and different potential contenders like Frank Orren Lowden and Vice President Charles G. Dawes did not garner widespread assist. Hoover gained the presidential nomination on the primary poll of the 1928 Republican National Convention. Convention delegates thought-about re-nominating Vice President Charles Dawes to be Hoover’s working mate, however Coolidge, who hated Dawes, remarked that this is able to be “a personal affront” to him. The conference as an alternative chosen Senator Charles Curtis of Kansas.[129] Hoover accepted the nomination at Stanford Stadium, telling an enormous crowd that he would proceed the insurance policies of the Harding and Coolidge administrations. The Democrats nominated New York governor Al Smith, who grew to become the primary Catholic main occasion nominee for president.

1928 electoral vote outcomes

Hoover centered his marketing campaign across the Republican document of peace and prosperity, in addition to his personal popularity as a profitable engineer and public official. Averse to giving political speeches, Hoover largely stayed out of the fray and left the campaigning to Curtis and different Republicans. Smith was extra charismatic and gregarious than Hoover, however his marketing campaign was broken by anti-Catholicism and his overt opposition to Prohibition. Hoover had by no means been a powerful proponent of Prohibition, however he accepted the Republican Party’s plank in favor of it and issued an ambivalent assertion calling Prohibition “a great social and economic experiment, noble in motive and far-reaching in purpose”. In the South, Hoover and the nationwide occasion pursued a “lily-white” technique, eradicating black Republicans from management positions in an try to curry favor with white Southerners.

Hoover maintained polling leads all through the 1928 marketing campaign, and he decisively defeated Smith on election day, taking 58 p.c of the favored vote and 444 of the 531 electoral votes. Historians agree that Hoover’s nationwide popularity and the booming financial system, mixed with deep splits within the Democratic Party over faith and Prohibition, assured his landslide victory.[136] Hoover’s enchantment to Southern white voters succeeded in cracking the “Solid South”, and he gained 5 Southern states. Hoover’s victory was positively obtained by newspapers; one wrote that Hoover would “drive so forcefully at the tasks now before the nation that the end of his eight years as president will find us looking back on an era of prodigious achievement”.

Hoover’s detractors questioned why he didn’t do something to reapportion congress after the 1920 United States Census which noticed a rise in city and immigrant populations. The 1920 Census was the primary and solely Decennial Census the place the outcomes weren’t used to reapportion Congress, which finally influenced the 1928 Electoral College and impacted the Presidential Election.[139][140]

Presidency (1929–1933)

Hoover noticed the presidency as a automobile for enhancing the situations of all Americans by encouraging public-private cooperation—what he termed “volunteerism”. He tended to oppose governmental coercion or intervention, as he thought they infringed on American beliefs of individualism and self-reliance.[141] The first main invoice that he signed, the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1929, established the Federal Farm Board with the intention to stabilize farm costs. Hoover made in depth use of commissions to review points and suggest options, and lots of of these commissions had been sponsored by personal donors quite than by the federal government. One of the commissions began by Hoover, the Research Committee on Social Trends, was tasked with surveying the whole lot of American society. He appointed a Cabinet consisting largely of rich, business-oriented conservatives, together with Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon. Lou Henry Hoover was an activist First Lady. She typified the brand new lady of the publish–World War I period: clever, strong, and conscious of a number of feminine prospects.[146]

Great Depression

On taking workplace, Hoover stated that “given the chance to go forward with the policies of the last eight years, we shall soon with the help of God, be in sight of the day when poverty will be banished from this nation”.[147] Having seen the fruits of prosperity introduced by technological progress, many shared Hoover’s optimism, and the already bullish inventory market climbed even increased on Hoover’s accession. This optimism hid a number of threats to sustained U.S. financial development, together with a persistent farm disaster, a saturation of client items like vehicles, and rising revenue inequality. Most harmful of all to the financial system was extreme hypothesis that had raised inventory costs far past their worth. Some regulators and bankers had warned Coolidge and Hoover {that a} failure to curb hypothesis would result in “one of the greatest financial catastrophes that this country has ever seen,” however each presidents had been reluctant to change into concerned with the workings of the Federal Reserve System, which regulated banks.

In late October 1929, the Stock Market Crash of 1929 occurred, and the worldwide financial system started to spiral downward into the Great Depression. The causes of the Great Depression stay a matter of debate, however Hoover seen a insecurity within the monetary system as the basic financial downside going through the nation. He sought to keep away from direct federal intervention, believing that the easiest way to bolster the financial system was by way of the strengthening of companies akin to banks and railroads. He additionally feared that permitting people on the “dole” would completely weaken the nation. Instead, Hoover strongly believed that native governments and personal giving ought to handle the wants of people.

Early insurance policies

Though he tried to place a constructive spin on Black Tuesday, Hoover moved shortly to handle the inventory market collapse. In the times following Black Tuesday, Hoover gathered enterprise and labor leaders, asking them to keep away from wage cuts and work stoppages whereas the nation confronted what he believed could be a brief recession just like the Depression of 1920–21. Hoover additionally satisfied railroads and public utilities to extend spending on development and upkeep, and the Federal Reserve introduced that it will minimize rates of interest. In early 1930, Hoover acquired from Congress an extra $100 million to proceed the Federal Farm Board lending and buying insurance policies.[160] These actions had been collectively designed to forestall a cycle of deflation and supply a fiscal stimulus. At the identical time, Hoover opposed congressional proposals to supply federal reduction to the unemployed, as he believed that such packages had been the accountability of state and native governments and philanthropic organizations.

Hoover had taken workplace hoping to boost agricultural tariffs with the intention to assist farmers reeling from the farm disaster of the Nineteen Twenties, however his try to boost agricultural tariffs grew to become linked with a invoice that broadly raised tariffs. Hoover refused to change into intently concerned within the congressional debate over the tariff, and Congress produced a tariff invoice that raised charges for a lot of items. Despite the widespread unpopularity of the invoice, Hoover felt that he couldn’t reject the primary legislative accomplishment of the Republican-controlled 71st Congress. Over the objection of many economists, Hoover signed the Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act into legislation in June 1930.Canada, France, and different nations retaliated by elevating tariffs, leading to a contraction of worldwide commerce and a worsening of the financial system.[165] Progressive Republicans akin to Senator William E. Borah of Idaho had been outraged when Hoover signed the tariff act, and Hoover’s relations with that wing of the occasion by no means recovered.

Later insurance policies

By the tip of 1930, the nationwide unemployment fee had reached 11.9 p.c, but it surely was not but clear to most Americans that the financial downturn could be worse than the Depression of 1920–21. A sequence of bank failures in late 1930 heralded a bigger collapse of the financial system in 1931. While different nations left the gold commonplace, Hoover refused to desert it; he derided another financial system as “collectivism”. Hoover seen the weak European financial system as a serious reason behind financial troubles within the United States. In response to the collapse of the German financial system, Hoover marshaled congressional assist behind a one-year moratorium on European conflict money owed. The Hoover Moratorium was warmly obtained in Europe and the United States, however Germany remained getting ready to defaulting on its loans. As the worldwide financial system worsened, democratic governments fell; in Germany, Nazi Party chief Adolf Hitler assumed energy and dismantled the Weimar Republic.

By mid-1931, the unemployment fee had reached 15 p.c, giving rise to rising fears that the nation was experiencing a despair far worse than current financial downturns. A reserved man with a concern of public talking, Hoover allowed his opponents within the Democratic Party to outline him as chilly, incompetent, reactionary, and out-of-touch. Hoover’s opponents developed defamatory epithets to discredit him, akin to “Hooverville” (the shanty cities and homeless encampments), “Hoover leather” (cardboard used to cowl holes within the soles of footwear), and “Hoover blanket” (outdated newspaper used to cowl oneself from the chilly).[177] While Hoover continued to withstand direct federal reduction efforts, Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York launched the Temporary Emergency Relief Administration to supply help to the unemployed. Democrats positioned this system as a kinder different to Hoover’s alleged apathy in the direction of the unemployed, regardless of Hoover’s perception that such packages had been the accountability of state and native governments.

The financial system continued to worsen, with unemployment charges nearing 23 p.c in early 1932, and Hoover lastly heeded requires extra direct federal intervention. In January 1932, he satisfied Congress to authorize the institution of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC), which would offer government-secured loans to monetary establishments, railroads, and native governments. The RFC saved quite a few companies from failure, but it surely did not stimulate industrial lending as a lot as Hoover had hoped, partly as a result of it was run by conservative bankers unwilling to make riskier loans. The similar month the RFC was established, Hoover signed the Federal Home Loan Bank Act, establishing 12 district banks overseen by a Federal Home Loan Bank Board in a fashion just like the Federal Reserve System. He additionally helped organize passage of the Glass–Steagall Act of 1932, emergency banking laws designed to increase banking credit by increasing the collateral on which Federal Reserve banks had been approved to lend. As these measures did not stem the financial disaster, Hoover signed the Emergency Relief and Construction Act, a $2 billion public works invoice, in July 1932.

Budget coverage

National debt as a fraction of GNP up from 20% to 40% below Hoover. From Historical Statistics US (1976).

After a decade of finances surpluses, the federal authorities skilled a finances deficit in 1931. Though some economists, like William Trufant Foster, favored deficit spending to handle the Great Depression, most politicians and economists believed within the necessity of protecting a balanced finances. In late 1931, Hoover proposed a tax plan to extend tax income by 30 p.c, ensuing within the passage of the Revenue Act of 1932. The act elevated taxes throughout the board, rolling again a lot of the tax minimize discount program Mellon had presided over throughout the Nineteen Twenties. Top earners had been taxed at 63 p.c on their internet revenue, the very best fee because the early Nineteen Twenties. The act additionally doubled the highest property tax fee, minimize private revenue tax exemptions, eradicated the company revenue tax exemption, and raised company tax charges.[188] Despite the passage of the Revenue Act, the federal authorities continued to run a finances deficit.

Civil rights and Mexican Repatriation

Hoover seldom talked about civil rights whereas he was president. He believed that African Americans and different races may enhance themselves with schooling and particular person initiative.[190][page needed] Hoover appointed extra African Americans to federal positions than Harding and Coolidge had mixed, however many African-American leaders condemned varied points of the Hoover administration, together with Hoover’s unwillingness to push for a federal anti-lynching legislation. Hoover additionally continued to pursue the lily-white technique, eradicating African Americans from positions of management within the Republican Party in an try to finish the Democratic Party’s dominance within the South. Though Robert Moton and another black leaders accepted the lily-white technique as a brief measure, most African-American leaders had been outraged. Hoover additional alienated black leaders by nominating conservative Southern decide John J. Parker to the Supreme Court; Parker’s nomination finally failed within the Senate as a result of opposition from the NAACP and arranged labor. Many black voters switched to the Democratic Party within the 1932 election, and African Americans would later change into an essential a part of Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal coalition.

As a part of his efforts to restrict unemployment, Hoover sought to chop immigration to the United States, and in 1930 he promulgated an govt order requiring people to have employment earlier than migrating to the United States.

Prohibition

On taking workplace, Hoover urged Americans to obey the Eighteenth Amendment and the Volstead Act, which had established Prohibition throughout the United States. To make public coverage suggestions concerning Prohibition, he created the Wickersham Commission. Hoover had hoped that the fee’s public report would buttress his stance in favor of Prohibition, however the report criticized the enforcement of the Volstead Act and famous the rising public opposition to Prohibition. After the Wickersham Report was revealed in 1931, Hoover rejected the recommendation of a few of his closest allies and refused to endorse any revision of the Volstead Act or the Eighteenth Amendment, as he feared doing so would undermine his assist amongst Prohibition advocates. As public opinion more and more turned towards Prohibition, an increasing number of individuals flouted the legislation, and a grassroots motion started working in earnest for Prohibition’s repeal.[200] In January 1933, a constitutional modification repealing the Eighteenth Amendment was authorised by Congress and submitted to the states for ratification. By December 1933, it had been ratified by the requisite variety of states to change into the Twenty-first Amendment.[201]

Foreign relations

According to Leuchtenburg, Hoover was “the last American president to take office with no conspicuous need to pay attention to the rest of the world”. Nevertheless, throughout Hoover’s time period, the world order established within the fast aftermath of World War I started to crumble. As president, Hoover largely made good on his pledge made previous to assuming workplace to not intervene in Latin America’s inner affairs. In 1930, he launched the Clark Memorandum, a rejection of the Roosevelt Corollary and a transfer in the direction of non-interventionism in Latin America. Hoover didn’t fully chorus from using the army in Latin American affairs; he thrice threatened intervention within the Dominican Republic, and he despatched warships to El Salvador to assist the federal government towards a left-wing revolution. Notwithstanding these actions, he wound down the Banana Wars, ending the occupation of Nicaragua and practically bringing an finish to the occupation of Haiti.

Hoover positioned a precedence on disarmament, which he hoped would permit the United States to shift cash from the army to home wants. Hoover and Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson centered on extending the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty, which sought to forestall a naval arms race. As a results of Hoover’s efforts, the United States and different main naval powers signed the 1930 London Naval Treaty. The treaty represented the primary time that the naval powers had agreed to cap their tonnage of auxiliary vessels, as earlier agreements had solely affected capital ships.

At the 1932 World Disarmament Conference, Hoover urged additional cutbacks in armaments and the outlawing of tanks and bombers, however his proposals weren’t adopted.

In 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria, defeating the Republic of China’s National Revolutionary Army and establishing Manchukuo, a puppet state. The Hoover administration deplored the invasion, but additionally sought to keep away from antagonizing the Japanese, fearing that taking too sturdy a stand would weaken the average forces within the Japanese authorities and alienate a possible ally towards the Soviet Union, which he noticed as a a lot better risk. In response to the Japanese invasion, Hoover and Secretary of State Stimson outlined the Stimson Doctrine, which held that the United States wouldn’t acknowledge territories gained by pressure.[210]

Bonus Army

Thousands of World War I veterans and their households demonstrated and camped out in Washington, DC, throughout June 1932, calling for fast cost of bonuses that had been promised by the World War Adjusted Compensation Act in 1924; the phrases of the act referred to as for cost of the bonuses in 1945. Although supplied cash by Congress to return residence, some members of the “Bonus Army” remained. Washington police tried to disperse the demonstrators, however they had been outnumbered and unsuccessful. Shots had been fired by the police in a futile try to achieve order, and two protesters had been killed whereas many officers had been injured. Hoover despatched U.S. Army forces led by General Douglas MacArthur to the protests. MacArthur, believing he was combating a Communist revolution, selected to filter out the camp with army pressure. Though Hoover had not ordered MacArthur’s clearing out of the protesters, he endorsed it after the very fact. The incident proved embarrassing for the Hoover administration, and destroyed any remaining likelihood he had of profitable re-election.[212]

1932 re-election marketing campaign

Hoover addresses a big crowd in his 1932 marketing campaign.

By mid-1931 few observers thought that Hoover had a lot hope of profitable a second time period within the midst of the continuing financial disaster. The Republican expectations had been so bleak that Hoover confronted no severe opposition for re-nomination on the 1932 Republican National Convention. Coolidge and different distinguished Republicans all handed on the chance to problem Hoover. Franklin D. Roosevelt gained the presidential nomination on the fourth poll of the 1932 Democratic National Convention, defeating the 1928 Democratic nominee, Al Smith. The Democrats attacked Hoover as the reason for the Great Depression, and for being detached to the struggling of tens of millions. As Governor of New York, Roosevelt had referred to as on the New York legislature to supply help for the needy, establishing Roosevelt’s popularity for being extra favorable towards authorities interventionism throughout the financial disaster. The Democratic Party, together with Al Smith and different nationwide leaders, coalesced behind Roosevelt, whereas progressive Republicans like George Norris and Robert La Follette Jr. abandoned Hoover. Prohibition was more and more unpopular, and wets supplied the argument that states and localities wanted the tax cash. Hoover proposed a brand new constitutional modification that was imprecise on particulars. Roosevelt’s platform promised repeal of the 18th Amendment.[218][219]

1932 electoral vote outcomes

Hoover initially deliberate to make just one or two main speeches, and to go away the remainder of the campaigning to proxies, as sitting presidents had historically completed. However, inspired by Republican pleas and outraged by Democratic claims, Hoover entered the general public fray. In his 9 main radio addresses Hoover primarily defended his administration and his philosophy of presidency, urging voters to carry to the “foundations of experience” and reject the notion that authorities interventionism may save the nation from the Depression. In his marketing campaign journeys across the nation, Hoover was confronted with maybe probably the most hostile crowds ever seen by a sitting president. Besides having his practice and motorcades pelted with eggs and rotten fruit, he was typically heckled whereas talking, and on a number of events, the Secret Service halted makes an attempt to harm Hoover, together with capturing one man nearing Hoover carrying sticks of dynamite, and one other already having eliminated a number of spikes from the rails in entrance of the president’s practice.[221]

Hoover’s makes an attempt to vindicate his administration fell on deaf ears, as a lot of the general public blamed his administration for the despair. In the electoral vote, Hoover misplaced 59–472, carrying six states. Hoover gained 39.7 p.c of the favored vote, a plunge of 26 share factors from his outcome within the 1928 election.

Post-presidency (1933–1964)

Roosevelt administration

Opposition to New Deal

Hoover departed from Washington in March 1933, bitter at his election loss and persevering with unpopularity. As Coolidge, Harding, Wilson, and Taft had all died throughout the Nineteen Twenties or early Nineteen Thirties and Roosevelt died in workplace, Hoover was the only real residing ex-president from 1933 to 1953. Hoover and his spouse lived in Palo Alto till her loss of life in 1944, at which level Hoover started to stay completely on the Waldorf Astoria resort in New York City. During the Nineteen Thirties, Hoover more and more self-identified as a conservative. He intently adopted nationwide occasions after leaving public workplace, turning into a continuing critic of Franklin Roosevelt. In response to continued assaults on his character and presidency, Hoover wrote greater than two dozen books, together with The Challenge to Liberty (1934), which harshly criticized Roosevelt’s New Deal. Hoover described the New Deal’s National Recovery Administration and Agricultural Adjustment Administration as “fascistic”, and he referred to as the 1933 Banking Act a “move to gigantic socialism”.

Only 58 when he left workplace, Hoover held out hope for an additional time period as president all through the Nineteen Thirties. At the 1936 Republican National Convention, Hoover’s speech attacking the New Deal was effectively obtained, however the nomination went to Kansas Governor Alf Landon. In the overall election, Hoover delivered quite a few well-publicized speeches on behalf of Landon, however Landon was defeated by Roosevelt.[230] Though Hoover was desperate to oppose Roosevelt at each flip, Senator Arthur Vandenberg and different Republicans urged the still-unpopular Hoover to stay out of the fray throughout the debate over Roosevelt’s proposed Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937. At the 1940 Republican National Convention, Hoover once more hoped for the presidential nomination, but it surely went to the internationalist Wendell Willkie, who misplaced to Roosevelt within the common election.

World War II

During a 1938 journey to Europe, Hoover met with Adolf Hitler and stayed at Hermann Göring’s looking lodge. He expressed dismay on the persecution of Jews in Germany and believed that Hitler was mad, however didn’t current a risk to the U.S. Instead, Hoover believed that Roosevelt posed the largest risk to peace, holding that Roosevelt’s insurance policies provoked Japan and discouraged France and the United Kingdom from reaching an “accommodation” with Germany.[233] After the September 1939 invasion of Poland by Germany, Hoover opposed U.S. involvement in World War II, together with the Lend-Lease coverage. He was lively within the isolationist America First Committee.[235] He rejected Roosevelt’s presents to assist coordinate reduction in Europe, however, with the assistance of outdated associates from the CRB, helped set up the Commission for Polish Relief. After the start of the occupation of Belgium in 1940, Hoover offered help for Belgian civilians, although this help was described as pointless by German broadcasts.[238][239]

In December 1939, sympathetic Americans led by Hoover fashioned the Finnish Relief Fund to donate cash to assist Finnish civilians and refugees after the Soviet Union had began the Winter War by attacking Finland, which had outraged Americans.[240] By the tip of January, it had already despatched greater than two million {dollars} to the Finns.[241]

During a radio broadcast on June 29, 1941, one week after the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, Hoover disparaged any “tacit alliance” between the U.S. and the united states, stating, “if we join the war and Stalin wins, we have aided him to impose more communism on Europe and the world… War alongside Stalin to impose freedom is more than a travesty. It is a tragedy.”[242] Much to his frustration, Hoover was not referred to as upon to serve after the United States entered World War II as a result of his variations with Roosevelt and his persevering with unpopularity. He didn’t pursue the presidential nomination on the 1944 Republican National Convention, and, on the request of Republican nominee Thomas E. Dewey, shunned campaigning throughout the common election. In 1945, Hoover suggested President Harry S. Truman to drop the United States’ demand for the unconditional give up of Japan due to the excessive projected casualties of the deliberate invasion of Japan, though Hoover was unaware of the Manhattan Project and the atomic bomb.[244]

Post–World War II

Hoover’s official White House portrait by Elmer Wesley Greene

Following World War II, Hoover befriended President Harry S. Truman regardless of their ideological variations. Because of Hoover’s expertise with Germany on the finish of World War I, in 1946 Truman chosen the previous president to tour Allied-occupied Germany and Rome, Italy to establish the meals wants of the occupied nations. After touring Germany, Hoover produced numerous reviews important of U.S. occupation coverage.[246] He acknowledged in a single report that “there is the illusion that the New Germany left after the annexations can be reduced to a ‘pastoral state.’ It cannot be done unless we exterminate or move 25,000,000 people out of it.”[247] On Hoover’s initiative, a faculty meals program within the American and British occupation zones of Germany was begun on April 14, 1947; this system served 3,500,000 youngsters.[248]

In 1947, Truman appointed Hoover to a fee to reorganize the manager departments; the fee elected Hoover as chairman and have become often called the Hoover Commission. The fee really helpful modifications designed to strengthen the president’s capability to handle the federal authorities. Though Hoover had opposed Roosevelt’s focus of energy within the Nineteen Thirties, he believed {that a} stronger presidency was required with the appearance of the Atomic Age. During the 1948 presidential election, Hoover supported Republican nominee Thomas Dewey’s unsuccessful marketing campaign towards Truman, however he remained on good phrases with Truman. Hoover favored the United Nations in precept, however he opposed granting membership to the Soviet Union and different Communist states. He seen the Soviet Union to be as morally repugnant as Nazi Germany and supported the efforts of Richard Nixon and others to reveal Communists within the United States.

In 1949, New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey supplied Hoover the Senate seat vacated by Robert F. Wagner. He declined.[citation needed]

{A photograph} of Hoover in 1958

Hoover backed conservative chief Robert A. Taft on the 1952 Republican National Convention, however the occasion’s presidential nomination as an alternative went to Dwight D. Eisenhower, who went on to win the 1952 election. Though Eisenhower appointed Hoover to a different presidential fee, Hoover disliked Eisenhower, faulting the latter’s failure to roll again the New Deal. Hoover’s public work helped to rehabilitate his popularity, as did his use of self-deprecating humor; he often remarked that “I am the only person of distinction who’s ever had a depression named after him.” In 1958, Congress handed the Former Presidents Act, providing a $25,000 yearly pension (equal to $224,250 in 2020) to every former president.[255] Hoover took the pension despite the fact that he didn’t want the cash, probably to keep away from embarrassing Truman, whose precarious monetary standing performed a job within the legislation’s enactment.[256] In the early Sixties, President John F. Kennedy supplied Hoover varied positions; Hoover declined the presents however defended Kennedy after the Bay of Pigs invasion and was personally distraught by Kennedy’s assassination in 1963.

Hoover wrote a number of books throughout his retirement, together with The Ordeal of Woodrow Wilson, wherein he strongly defended Wilson’s actions on the Paris Peace Conference. In 1944, he started engaged on Freedom Betrayed, which he sometimes called his “magnum opus”. In Freedom Betrayed, Hoover strongly critiques Roosevelt’s overseas coverage, particularly Roosevelt’s resolution to acknowledge the Soviet Union with the intention to present help to that nation throughout World War II. The e book was revealed in 2012 after being edited by historian George H. Nash.[260]

Death

Hoover confronted three main sicknesses over the past two years of his life, together with an August 1962 operation wherein a development on his giant gut was eliminated.[262] He died on October 20, 1964, in New York City following large inner bleeding.[263]
Though Hoover’s final spoken phrases are unknown, his final recognized written phrases had been a get effectively message to his good friend Harry Truman, six days earlier than his loss of life, after he heard that Truman had sustained accidents from slipping in a rest room: “Bathtubs are a menace to ex-presidents for as you may recall a bathtub rose up and fractured my vertebrae when I was in Venezuela on your world famine mission in 1946. My warmest sympathy and best wishes for your recovery.”[264] Two months earlier, on August 10, Hoover reached the age of 90, solely the second U.S. president (after John Adams) to take action. When requested how he felt on reaching the milestone, Hoover replied, “Too old.”[262] At the time of his loss of life, Hoover had been out of workplace for over 31 years (11,553 days all collectively). This was the longest retirement in presidential historical past till Jimmy Carter broke that document in September 2012.[265]

Hoover was honored with a state funeral wherein he lay in state within the United States Capitol rotunda.[266] President Lyndon Johnson and First Lady Ladybird Johnson attended, together with former presidents Truman and Eisenhower. Then, on October 25, he was buried in West Branch, Iowa, close to his presidential library and birthplace on the grounds of the Herbert Hoover National Historic Site. Afterwards, Hoover’s spouse, Lou Henry Hoover, who had been buried in Palo Alto, California, following her loss of life in 1944, was re-interred beside him.[267] Hoover was the final surviving member of the Harding and Coolidge Cabinets.

Legacy

Historical popularity

Hoover was extraordinarily unpopular when he left workplace after the 1932 election, and his historic popularity wouldn’t start to recuperate till the Nineteen Seventies. According to Professor David E. Hamilton, historians have credited Hoover for his real perception in voluntarism and cooperation, in addition to the innovation of a few of his packages. However, Hamilton additionally notes that Hoover was politically inept and failed to acknowledge the severity of the Great Depression.[268]Nicholas Lemann writes that Hoover has been remembered “as the man who was too rigidly conservative to react adeptly to the Depression, as the hapless foil to the great Franklin Roosevelt, and as the politician who managed to turn a Republican country into a Democratic one”.[269] Polls of historians and political scientists have typically ranked Hoover within the backside third of presidents. A 2018 ballot of the American Political Science Association’s Presidents and Executive Politics part ranked Hoover because the thirty sixth greatest president.[270] A 2017 C-Span ballot of historians additionally ranked Hoover because the thirty sixth greatest president.[271]

Although Hoover is mostly thought to be having had a failed presidency, he has additionally obtained reward for his actions as a humanitarian and public official.[269] Biographer Glen Jeansonne writes that Hoover was “one of the most extraordinary Americans of modern times,” including that Hoover “led a life that was a prototypical Horatio Alger story, except that Horatio Alger stories stop at the pinnacle of success”. Biographer Kenneth Whyte writes that, “the question of where Hoover belongs in the American political tradition remains a loaded one to this day. While he clearly played important roles in the development of both the progressive and conservative traditions, neither side will embrace him for fear of contamination with the other.”

Views of race

Hoover was recognized to carry racist attitudes in the direction of black and mixed-race individuals. Many of his black contemporaries thought-about him a racist with W. E. B. Du Bois charging him as an “undemocratic racist who saw blacks as a species of ‘sub-men'”.[274]

Memorials

The Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum is positioned in West Branch, Iowa subsequent to the Herbert Hoover National Historic Site. The library is one in all 13 presidential libraries run by the National Archives and Records Administration. The Hoover–Minthorn House, the place Hoover lived from 1885 to 1891, is positioned in Newberg, Oregon. His Rapidan fishing camp in Virginia, which he donated to the federal government in 1933, is now a National Historic Landmark inside the Shenandoah National Park. The Lou Henry and Herbert Hoover House, in-built 1919 in Stanford, California, is now the official residence of the president of Stanford University, and a National Historic Landmark. Also positioned at Stanford is the Hoover Institution, a assume tank and analysis establishment began by Hoover.

Hoover has been memorialized within the names of a number of issues, together with the Hoover Dam on the Colorado River and quite a few elementary, center, and excessive faculties throughout the United States. Two minor planets, 932 Hooveria[275] and 1363 Herberta, are named in his honor.[276] The Polish capital of Warsaw has a sq. named after Hoover,[277] and the historic townsite of Gwalia, Western Australia comprises the Hoover House Bed and Breakfast, the place Hoover resided whereas managing and visiting the mine throughout the first decade of the 20th century.[278] A drugs ball recreation often called Hooverball is called for Hoover; it was invented by White House doctor Admiral Joel T. Boone to assist Hoover preserve match whereas serving as president.[279]

Other honors

Hoover was inducted into the National Mining Hall of Fame in 1988 (inaugural class).[280] His spouse was inducted into the corridor in 1990.[281]

Hoover was inducted into the Australian Prospectors and Miners’ Hall of Fame within the class Directors and Management.[282]

Hoover was awarded an honorary doctorate by the Charles University in Prague and University of Helsinki in March 1938.[283][284][285] The ceremonial sword is as we speak on show within the foyer of the Hoover tower.

See additionally

Notes

  1. ^ Hoover later grew to become the primary president born west of the Mississippi River, and stays the one president born in Iowa.
  2. ^ Hoover later claimed to be the primary student at Stanford, by advantage of getting been the primary particular person within the firstclass to sleep within the dormitory.[19]

References

Citations

  1. ^ www.whitehouse.gov
  2. ^ Burner, p. 6.
  3. ^ Burner, p. 7.
  4. ^ Burner, p. 9.
  5. ^ “Column: President spent days of his boyhood only 90 miles away”.
  6. ^ National Park Service – The Presidents (Herbert Hoover)
  7. ^ “Timeline”. December 6, 2017.
  8. ^ “Timeline”. December 6, 2017.
  9. ^ Revsine, David ‘Dave’ (November 30, 2006), “One-sided numbers dominate Saturday’s rivalry games”, ESPN, Go, retrieved November 30, 2006
  10. ^ Lane, Rose Wilder (1920). The Making of Herbert Hoover. New York: The Century Co. pp. 130–139. Retrieved November 2, 2020.
  11. ^ Big Games: College Football’s Greatest Rivalries – Page 222
  12. ^ “Herbert Hoover, the graduate: Have Stanford degree, will travel”. Hoover Institution. June 15, 2011. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
  13. ^ “What did the President do in Western Australia?”, FAQ, Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum, archived from the unique on January 18, 2012, retrieved January 18, 2012
  14. ^ Gwalia Historic Site, AU
  15. ^ “Hoover’s Gold” (PDF). Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
  16. ^ Hoover, Herbert C. (1952). The Memoirs of Herbert Hoover Years of Adventure 1874–1920. London: Hollis & Carter. p. 99
  17. ^ Blainey, Geoffrey (1963). The Rush That Never Ended. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. pp. 265–268.
  18. ^ a b Hoover, Herbert C. (1952). The Memoirs of Herbert Hoover Years of Adventure 1874–1920. London: Hollis & Carter
  19. ^ Kennan, George (1891). Siberia and the Exile System. London: James R. Osgood, McIlvaine & Co. pp. 165, 286.
  20. ^ Hamilton, David E. (October 4, 2016). “Herbert Hoover: Life Before the Presidency”. Miller Center. Retrieved February 19, 2019.
  21. ^ “The Humanitarian Years”, The Museum Exhibit Galleries, Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum, archived from the unique on January 9, 2011, retrieved February 16, 2011
  22. ^ John Hudson (October 6, 2014). Christmas 1914: The First World War at Home and Abroad. History Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-7509-6038-0.
  23. ^ Burton Jesse Hendrick; Woodrow Wilson (1926). The life and letters of Walter H. Page. Doubleday, Page. p. 313.
  24. ^ Woodrow Wilson; Arthur Stanley Link (1982). The Papers of Woodrow Wilson. Princeton University Press. p. 369. ISBN 9780691046907. vol 40 p 369.
  25. ^ “Food as a Weapon.”, Hoover Digest, Hoover Institution
  26. ^ How the U.S. saved a ravenous Soviet Russia: PBS movie highlights Stanford scholar’s analysis on the 1921–23 famine”. Stanford University. April 4, 2011
  27. ^ “Hoover Institution Timeline”. Hoover Institution. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
  28. ^ Zieger, Robert H. (January 13, 2015). Republicans and Labor: 1919–1929. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 9780813164991 – by way of Google Books.
  29. ^ Himmelberg, Robert F. (January 16, 1962). Antitrust and Regulation During World War I and the Republican Era, 1917-1932. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780815314066 – by way of Google Books.
  30. ^ Barnouw, Erik (1966), A Tower In Babel; A historical past of Broadcasting within the United States to 1933, New York: Oxford University Press
  31. ^ “Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of 91st Congress, First Session. Volume 115, Part 4”. Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of 91st Congress.
  32. ^ Green, Edith (March 7, 1962). United States Congress. “Program Practices of Television Networks”. Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 87th Congress, Second Session. U.S. Government Printing Office. 108 (half 3 (Pages 2851 to 4340)): 3558. Interestingly, … an American … acknowledged the issue that arose with common dissemination, versus point-to-point transmission, of messages by wi-fi. … The American was Herbert Hoover.
  33. ^ Peter D. Norton, Fighting Traffic: The Dawn of the Motor Age within the American City (MIT Press, 2008), pp. 178–197 ISBN 0-262-14100-0
  34. ^ George H. Nash, “The Great Enigma and the Great Engineer,” in John E. Haynes, ed., Calvin Coolidge and the Coolidge Era, (1998) pp 149-80.
  35. ^ Phillips Payson O’Brien, “Herbert Hoover, Anglo–American Relations and Republican Party Politics in the 1920s.” Diplomacy & Statecraft 22.2 (2011): 200-218.
  36. ^ Hutchison, Janet (1997), “Building for Babbitt: the State and the Suburban Home Ideal”, Journal of Policy History, 9 (2): 184–210, doi:10.1017/S0898030600005923
  37. ^ ‘Robert Moton and the Colored Advisory Commission’, PBS.org
  38. ^ Rusnak, Robert J. (Spring 1983). “Andrew W. Mellon: Reluctant Kingmaker”. Presidential Studies Quarterly. 13 (2): 269–278. JSTOR 27547924.
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Works cited

  • Burner, David (1996) [1979]. Herbert Hoover: The Public Life. Easton Press. Originally revealed as Burner, David (1979). Herbert Hoover: The Public Life. Knopf Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-394-46134-2.
  • Carcasson, Martin (Spring 1998). “Herbert Hoover and the Presidential Campaign of 1932: The Failure of Apologia”. Presidential Studies Quarterly. 28 (2): 349–365. JSTOR 27551864.
  • Eichengreen, Barry; Temin, Peter (2000). “The Gold Standard and the Great Depression” (PDF). Contemporary European History. 9 (2): 183–207. doi:10.1017/S0960777300002010. JSTOR 20081742. S2CID 158383956.
  • Fausold, Martin L. (1985). The Presidency of Herbert C. Hoover. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-0259-9.
  • Ferrell, Robert H. (1998). The Presidency of Calvin Coolidge. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-0892-8.
  • Ferrell, Robert H. (1957). American Diplomacy within the Great Depression: Hoover–Stimson Foreign Policy, 1929–1933. Yale University Press.
  • Garcia, George F. (January 1, 1980). “Black Disaffection From the Republican Party During the Presidency of Herbert Hoover, 1928–1932”. The Annals of Iowa. 45 (6): 462–477. doi:10.17077/0003-4827.8734. ISSN 0003-4827.
  • Hart, David M. (1998), “Herbert Hoover’s Last Laugh: the Enduring Significance of the ‘Associative State’ in the United States”, Journal of Policy History, 10 (4): 419–444, doi:10.1017/S0898030600007156
  • Herring, George C. (2008). From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507822-0.
  • Hoffman, Abraham (May 1973). “Stimulus to Repatriation: The 1931 Federal Deportation Drive and the Los Angeles Mexican Community”. Pacific Historical Review. 42 (2): 205–219. doi:10.2307/3638467. JSTOR 3638467.
  • Houck, Davis W. (2000), “Rhetoric as Currency: Herbert Hoover and the 1929 Stock Market Crash”, Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 3 (2): 155–181, doi:10.1353/rap.2010.0156, ISSN 1094-8392, S2CID 154447214
  • Johnson, Kevin (Fall 2005). “The Forgotten Repatriation of Persons of Mexican Ancestry and Lessons for the War on Terror”. Pace Law Review. 26 (1): 1–26.
  • Jeansonne, Glen (2016). Herbert Hoover: A Life. Penguin. ISBN 9781101991008.
  • Kaufman, Bruce E. (2012). “Wage Theory, New Deal Labor Policy, and the Great Depression: Were Government and Unions to Blame?”. Industrial and Labor Relations Review. 65 (3): 501–532. doi:10.1177/001979391206500302. hdl:10072/48703. JSTOR 24368882. S2CID 54877676.
  • Kennedy, David M. (1999). Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195038347.
  • Keynes, John Maynard (1919). The Economic Consequences of the Peace. Harcourt Brace and Howe.
  • Leuchtenburg, William E. (2009). Herbert Hoover. Times Books (Henry Holt and Company). ISBN 978-0-8050-6958-7.
  • Leuchtenburg, William E. (Summer 2009). “The Wrong Man at the Wrong Time”. American Heritage. 59 (2).
  • McCoy, Donald R. (1967). Calvin Coolidge: The Quiet President. Macmillan. ISBN 978-1468017779.
  • Nash, George H. (1983). The Life of Herbert Hoover: The Engineer 1874–1914. W W Norton. ISBN 978-0393016345. Book 1 in The Life of Herbert Hoover Series.
  • O’Brien, Patrick G.; Rosen, Philip T. (1981). “Hoover and the Historians: the Resurrection of a President”. The Annals of Iowa. 46 (2): 83–99. doi:10.17077/0003-4827.8816.
  • Olson, James S. (October 1972). “Gifford Pinchot and the Politics of Hunger, 1932–1933”. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. 96 (4): 508–520. JSTOR 20090681.
  • Rappleye (2016). Herbert Hoover within the White House: The Ordeal of the Presidency. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4516-4869-0.
  • Whyte, Kenneth (2017). Hoover: An Extraordinary Life in Extraordinary Times. Knopf. ISBN 978-0307597960.
  • Wilson, Joan Hoff (1975). Herbert Hoover, Forgotten Progressive. Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-94416-8.

Further studying

Biographies

  • Best, Gary Dean. The Politics of American Individualism: Herbert Hoover in Transition, 1918–1921 (1975)
  • Best, Gary Dean. The Life of Herbert Hoover: Keeper of the Torch, 1933–1964. Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
  • Clements, Kendrick A. The Life of Herbert Hoover: Imperfect Visionary, 1918–1928 (2010).
  • Edwards, Barry C. “Putting Hoover on the Map: Was the 31st President a Progressive?” Congress & the Presidency 41#1 (2014) pp 49–83 on-line
  • Hatfield, Mark. ed. Herbert Hoover Reassessed (2002)
  • Hawley, Ellis (1989), Herbert Hoover and the Historians.
  • Jeansonne, Glen. The Life of Herbert Hoover: Fighting Quaker, 1928–1933. Palgrave Macmillan; 2012.
  • Lloyd, Craig. Aggressive Introvert: A Study of Herbert Hoover and Public Relations Management, 1912–1932 (1973).
  • Nash, George H. The Life of Herbert Hoover: The Engineer 1874–1914 (1983); in-depth scholarly research
    • —— (1988), The Humanitarian, 1914–1917, The Life of Herbert Hoover, 2.
    • —— (1996), Master of Emergencies, 1917–1918, The Life of Herbert Hoover, 3.
  • Nash, Lee, ed. Understanding Herbert Hoover: Ten Perspectives (1987); essays by students
  • Smith, Richard Norton. An Uncommon Man: The Triumph of Herbert Hoover, (1987), biography concentrating on publish 1932.
  • Walch, Timothy. ed. Uncommon Americans: The Lives and Legacies of Herbert and Lou Henry Hoover Praeger, 2003.
  • West, Hal Elliott. Hoover, the Fishing President: Portrait of the Man and his Life Outdoors (2005).

Scholarly research

  • Arnold, Peri E. “The ‘Great Engineer’ as Administrator: Herbert Hoover and Modern Bureaucracy.” Review of Politics 42.3 (1980): 329–348. JSTOR 1406794.
  • Barber, William J. From New Era to New Deal: Herbert Hoover, the Economists, and American Economic Policy, 1921–1933. (1985)
  • Claus Bernet (2009). “Hoover, Herbert”. In Bautz, Traugott (ed.). Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German). 30. Nordhausen: Bautz. cols. 644–653. ISBN 978-3-88309-478-6.
  • Brandes, Joseph. Herbert Hoover and Economic Diplomacy: Department of Commerce Policy, 1921-1928. (U of Pittsburgh Press, 1970).
  • Britten, Thomas A. “Hoover and the Indians: the Case for Continuity in Federal Indian Policy, 1900–1933” Historian 1999 61(3): 518–538. ISSN 0018-2370.
  • Clements, Kendrick A. Hoover, Conservation, and Consumerism: Engineering the Good Life. University Press of Kansas, 2000
  • Dodge, Mark M., ed. Herbert Hoover and the Historians. (1989)
  • Fausold Martin L. and George Mazuzan, eds. The Hoover Presidency: A Reappraisal (1974)
  • Goodman, Mark, and Mark Gring. “The Radio Act of 1927: progressive ideology, epistemology, and praxis”. Rhetoric & Public Affairs 3.3 (2000): 397–418.
  • Hawley, Ellis.”Herbert Hoover and the Historians—Recent Developments: A Review Essay” Annals of Iowa 78#1 (2018) pp. 75–86 DOI
  • Hawley, Ellis. “Herbert Hoover, the Commerce Secretariat, and the Vision of an ‘Associative State’, 1921–1928”. Journal of American History, (June 1974) 61#1: 116–140.
  • Jansky Jr, C. M. “The contribution of Herbert Hoover to broadcasting.” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 1.3 (1957): 241–249.
  • Lee, David D. “Herbert Hoover and the Development of Commercial Aviation, 1921–1926.” Business History Review 58.1 (1984): 78-102.
  • Lichtman, Allan J. Prejudice and the Old Politics: The Presidential Election of 1928 (1979)
  • Lisio, Donald J. The President and Protest: Hoover, MacArthur, and the Bonus Riot, second ed. (1994)
  • Lisio, Donald J. Hoover, Blacks, and Lily-whites: A Study of Southern Strategies (1985)
  • Parafianowicz,Halina. ‘Herbert C. Hoover and Poland: 1919–1933. Between Myth and Reality’
  • Polsky, Andrew J., and Olesya Tkacheva. “Legacies Versus Politics: Herbert Hoover, Partisan Conflict, and the Symbolic Appeal of Associationalism in the 1920s.” International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society 16.2 (2002): 207–235. on-line
  • Short, Brant. “The Rhetoric of the Post-Presidency: Herbert Hoover’s Campaign against the New Deal, 1934-1936” Presidential Studies Quarterly (1991) 21#2 pp. 333–350 on-line
  • Sibley, Katherine A.S., ed. A Companion to Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover (2014); 616pp; essays by students stressing historiography
  • Wueschner, Silvano A. Charting Twentieth-Century Monetary Policy: Herbert Hoover and Benjamin Strong, 1917–1927. Greenwood, 1999

Primary sources

  • Myers, William Starr; Walter H. Newton, eds. (1936). The Hoover Administration; a documented narrative.
  • Hawley, Ellis, ed. (1974–1977). Herbert Hoover: Containing the Public Messages, Speeches, and Statements of the President, 4 vols.
  • Hoover, Herbert Clark (1934), The Challenge to Liberty.
  • —— (1938), Addresses Upon The American Road, 1933–1938.
  • —— (1941), Addresses Upon The American Road, 1940–41.
  • ——; and Gibson, Hugh (1942), The Problems of Lasting Peace.
  • —— (1949), Addresses Upon The American Road, 1945–48.
  • —— (1952a), Years of journey, 1874–1920 (PDF), Memoirs, 1, New York, archived from the unique (PDF) on December 17, 2008.
  • —— (1952b), The Cabinet and the Presidency, 1920–1933 (PDF), Memoirs, 2, New York, archived from the unique (PDF) on December 17, 2008.
  • —— (1952c), The Great Depression, 1929–1941 (PDF), Memoirs, 3, New York, archived from the unique (PDF) on December 17, 2008.
  • Miller, Dwight M.; Walch, Timothy, eds. (1998), Herbert Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt: A Documentary History, Contributions in American History, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, ISBN 978-0-313-30608-2
  • Hoover, Herbert Clark (2011), Nash, George H. (ed.), Freedom Betrayed: Herbert Hoover’s Secret History of the Second World War and Its Aftermath, Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, ISBN 978-0-8179-1234-5.
  • Hoover, Herbert Clark (2013), Nash, George H. (ed.), The Crusade Years, 1933–1955: Herbert Hoover’s Lost Memoir of the New Deal Era and Its Aftermath, Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, ISBN 978-0-8179-1674-9.

External hyperlinks


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