Gujarati language - Wikipedia

Gujarati language – Wikipedia

Indo-Aryan language

Gujarati (;[5]Gujarati script: ગુજરાતી, romanized: Gujarātī, pronounced [ɡudʒˈɾɑːtiː]) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat and spoken predominantly by the Gujarati folks. Gujarati is a part of the better Indo-European language household. Gujarati is descended from Old Gujarati (c. 1100–1500 CE). In India, it’s the official language within the state of Gujarat, in addition to an official language within the union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu. As of 2011, Gujarati is the sixth most generally spoken language in India by variety of native audio system, spoken by 55.5 million audio system which quantities to about 4.5% of the overall Indian inhabitants.[2] It is the twenty sixth most generally spoken language on the planet by variety of native audio system as of 2007.[6]

The Gujarati language is greater than 1000 years previous and is spoken by greater than 55 million folks worldwide.[7] Outside of Gujarat, Gujarati is spoken in lots of different components of South Asia by Gujarati migrants, particularly in Bombay and Pakistan (primarily in Karachi).[8] Gujarati can also be broadly spoken in lots of nations exterior South Asia by the Gujarati diaspora. In North America, Gujarati is without doubt one of the quickest rising and most generally spoken Indian languages within the United States and Canada.[9][10] In Europe, Gujaratis kind the second largest of the British South Asian speech communities, and Gujarati is the fourth mostly spoken language within the UK’s capital London.[11] Gujarati can also be spoken in Southeast Africa, notably in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, and South Africa.[12][13][14] Elsewhere, Gujarati is spoken to a lesser extent in Hong Kong, Indonesia, Singapore, Australia, and Middle Eastern nations corresponding to Bahrain.[12][15][16]

History[edit]

1666 manuscript of a sixth century Jain Prakrit textual content with a 1487 commentary in Old Gujarati

Gujarati (additionally generally spelled Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, Guujaratee, Gujrathi, and Gujerathi[17]) is a contemporary Indo-Aryan (IA) language developed from Sanskrit. The conventional observe is to distinguish the IA languages on the idea of three historic levels:

  1. Old IA (Vedic and Classical Sanskrit)
  2. Middle IA (numerous Prakrits and Apabhramshas)
  3. New IA (trendy languages corresponding to Hindi, Punjabi, Bengali, and many others.)

Another view postulates successive household tree splits, wherein Gujarati is assumed to have separated from different IA languages in 4 levels:

  1. IA languages cut up into Northern, Eastern, and Western divisions primarily based on the innovate traits corresponding to plosives turning into voiced within the Northern (Skt. danta “tooth” > Punj. dānd) and dental and retroflex sibilants merging with the palatal within the Eastern (Skt. sandhya “evening” > Beng. śājh).
  2. Western, into Central and Southern.
  3. Central, in Gujarati/Rajasthani, Western Hindi, and Punjabi/Lahanda/Sindhi, on the idea of innovation of auxiliary verbs and postpositions in Gujarati/Rajasthani.
  4. Gujarati/Rajasthani into Gujarati and Rajasthani via improvement of such traits as auxiliary ch– and the possessive marker –n– throughout the fifteenth century.

The principal modifications from Sanskrit are the next:

Sanskrit Prakrit Gujarati English Ref
hasta hattha hāth hand
sapta satta sāt seven
aṣṭā aṭṭha āṭh eight
sarpa sappa sāp snake

Gujarati is then usually divided into the next three historic levels:

Old Gujarati[edit]

Old Gujarātī (જૂની ગુજરાતી; 1200 CE–1500 CE), the ancestor of contemporary Gujarati and Rajasthani,[26] was spoken by the Gurjars, who have been residing and ruling in Gujarat, Punjab, Rajputana and central India.[27][28] The language was used as literary language as early because the twelfth century. Texts of this period show attribute Gujarati options corresponding to direct/indirect noun types, postpositions, and auxiliary verbs.[29] It had three genders, as Gujarati does immediately, and by across the time of 1300 CE, a reasonably standardized type of this language emerged. While commonly known as Old Gujarati, some students want the identify of Old Western Rajasthani, primarily based on the argument that Gujarati and Rajasthani weren’t but distinct. Factoring into this choice was the assumption that trendy Rajasthani sporadically expressed a neuter gender, primarily based on the wrong conclusion that the [ũ] that got here to be pronounced in some areas for masculine [o] after a nasal consonant was analogous to Gujarati’s neuter [ũ].[30] A proper grammar, Prakrita Vyakarana, of the precursor to this language, Gurjar Apabhraṃśa, was written by Jain monk and eminent scholar Acharya Hemachandra Suri within the reign of Chaulukya king Jayasimha Siddharaja of Anhilwara (Patan).[31]

Middle Gujarati[edit]

Modern Gujarati (1800–current)[edit]

A web page from the Gujarati translation of Dabestan-e Mazaheb ready and printed by Fardunjee Marzban (25 December 1815)

A serious phonological change was the deletion of ultimate ə, such that the trendy language has consonant-final phrases. Grammatically, a brand new plural marker of –o developed. In literature, the third quarter of the nineteenth century noticed a sequence of milestones for Gujarati, which beforehand had verse as its dominant mode of literary composition.[33] In Nineteen Twenties, the efforts to standardise Gujarati have been carried out.[34]

Demographics and distribution[edit]

Of the roughly 46 million audio system of Gujarati in 1997, roughly 45.5 million resided in India, 150,000 in Uganda, 50,000 in Tanzania, 50,000 in Kenya and roughly 100,000 in Karachi, Pakistan, excluding a number of tons of of 1000’s of Memonis who don’t self-identify as Gujarati, however hail from a area inside the state of Gujarat.[37] However, Gujarati group leaders in Pakistan declare that there are 3 million Gujarati audio system in Karachi.[38] Elsewhere in Pakistan, Gujarati can also be spoken in Lower Punjab.[39] Pakistani Gujarati might be a dialect of Gamadia.[39]

Mahatma Gandhi used Gujarati served as a medium of literary expression. He helped to encourage a renewal in its literature, and in 1936 he launched the present spelling conference on the Gujarati Literary Society’s twelfth assembly.[42]

Some Mauritians and lots of Réunion islanders are of Gujarati descent and a few of them nonetheless communicate Gujarati.[citation needed]

A substantial Gujarati-speaking inhabitants exists in North America, particularly within the New York City Metropolitan Area and within the Greater Toronto Area, which have over 100,000 audio system and over 75,000 audio system, respectively, but in addition all through the main metropolitan areas of the United States and Canada. According to the 2016 census, Gujarati is the fourth most-spoken South Asian language in Toronto after Hindustani, Punjabi and Tamil.

The UK has over 200,000 audio system, a lot of them located within the London space, particularly in North West London, but in addition in Birmingham, Manchester, and in Leicester, Coventry, Rugby, UK, Bradford and the previous mill cities inside Lancashire. A portion of those numbers consists of East African Gujaratis who, below rising discrimination and insurance policies of Africanisation of their newly unbiased resident nations (particularly Uganda, the place Idi Amin expelled 50,000 Asians), have been left with unsure futures and citizenships. Most, with British passports, settled within the UK. Gujarati is obtainable as a GCSE topic for students within the UK.

Some Gujarati mother and father within the diaspora aren’t comfy with the likelihood that their youngsters is not going to be fluent within the language.[44] In a research, 80% of Malayali mother and father felt that “Children would be better off with English”, in comparison with 36% of Kannada mother and father and solely 19% of Gujarati mother and father.[44]

Besides being spoken by the Gujarati folks, many non-Gujarati residents of Gujarat additionally communicate it, amongst them the Kutchis (as a literary language), the Parsis (adopted as a mom tongue), and Hindu Sindhi refugees from Pakistan.[45]

Official standing[edit]

Gujarati is without doubt one of the twenty-two official languages and fourteen regional languages of India, and one of many minority languages of neighboring Pakistan.[46] It is formally recognised within the state of Gujarat and the union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.

Gujarati is recognised and taught as a minority language within the states of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu and the union territory of Delhi.[47]

Dialects[edit]

According to British historian and philologist William Tisdall, who was an early scholar of Gujarati grammar, three main sorts of Gujarati exist: an ordinary ‘Hindu’ dialect, a ‘Parsi’ dialect and a ‘Muslim’ dialect.[48]

However, Gujarati has undergone up to date reclassification with respect to the widespread regional variations in vocabulary and phrasing; however the variety of poorly attested dialects and regional variations in naming.

  • Standard Gujarati: this types one thing of a standardised variant of Gujarati throughout information, training and authorities. It can also be spoken in pockets of Maharashtra. The sorts of it embody Mumbai Gujarati, Nagari.
  • Saurashtra: spoken primarily by the Saurashtrians who migrated from the Lata area of present-day Gujarat to Southern India within the Middle Ages. Saurashtra is carefully associated to Gujarati and the older dialects of Rajasthani and Sindhi. The script of this language is derived from the Devanagari script and shares similarities with modern-day Gujarati.
  • Amdawadi Gujarati: spoken primarily in Ahmedabad and the encircling areas, along with Bharuch and Surat, the place it’s colloquially often known as ‘Surati’. The sorts of it embody Ahmedabad Gamadia, Anawla, Brathela, Charotari, Eastern Broach Gujarati, Gramya, Patani, Patidari, Surati, Vadodari.
  • Kathiawari: a particular variant spoken primarily within the Kathiawar area and topic to vital Sindhi affect. The sorts of it embody Bhavnagari, Gohilwadi, Holadi/Halari, Jhalawadi, Sorathi.

Kharwa, Kakari and Tarimuki (Ghisadi) are additionally typically cited as extra sorts of Gujarati.

Kutchi is sometimes called a dialect of Gujarati, however most linguists think about it nearer to Sindhi. In addition, a combination between Sindhi, Gujarati, and Kutchi referred to as Memoni is said to Gujarati, albeit distantly.[49]

Furthermore, phrases utilized by the native languages of areas the place the Gujarati folks have turn out to be a diaspora group, corresponding to East Africa (Swahili), have turn out to be loanwords in native dialects of Gujarati.[50]

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Writing system[edit]

Similar to different Nāgarī writing techniques, the Gujarati script is an abugida. It is used to put in writing the Gujarati and Kutchi languages. It is a variant of the Devanāgarī script, differentiated by the lack of the attribute horizontal line operating above the letters and by a small variety of modifications within the remaining characters.

Gujarati and carefully associated languages, together with Kutchi and Parkari Koli, could be written within the Arabic or Persian scripts. This is historically achieved by many in Gujarat’s Kutch district.

Vocabulary[edit]

Categorisation and sources[edit]

These are the three basic classes of phrases in trendy Indo-Aryan: tadbhav, tatsam, and loanwords.[52]

Tadbhav[edit]

તદ્ભવ tadbhava, “of the nature of that”. Gujarati is a contemporary Indo-Aryan language descended from Sanskrit (previous Indo-Aryan), and this class pertains precisely to that: phrases of Sanskritic origin which have demonstratively undergone change over the ages, ending up attribute of contemporary Indo-Aryan languages particularly in addition to generally. Thus the “that” in “of the nature of that” refers to Sanskrit. They are usually non-technical, on a regular basis, essential phrases; a part of the spoken vernacular. Below is a desk of some Gujarati tadbhav phrases and their Old Indo-Aryan sources:

Old Indo-Aryan Gujarati Ref
I aham
falls, slips khasati khasvũ to maneuver
causes to maneuver arpayati āpvũ to offer
college nayaśālā niśāḷ
attains to, obtains prāpnoti pāmvũ
tiger vyāghra vāgh
equal, alike, degree sama samũ proper, sound
all sarva sau

Tatsam[edit]

તત્સમ tatsama, “same as that”. While Sanskrit ultimately stopped being spoken vernacularly, in that it become Middle Indo-Aryan, it was nonetheless standardised and retained as a literary and liturgical language for lengthy after. This class consists of those borrowed phrases of (roughly) pure Sanskrit character. They serve to complement Gujarati and trendy Indo-Aryan in its formal, technical, and non secular vocabulary. They are recognisable by their Sanskrit inflections and markings; they’re thus typically handled as a separate grammatical class unto themselves.

Tatsam English Gujarati
lekhak author lakhnār
vijetā winner jītnār
vikǎsit developed vikǎselũ
jāgǎraṇ awakening jāgvānũ

Many previous tatsam phrases have modified their meanings or have had their meanings adopted for contemporary occasions. પ્રસારણ prasāraṇ means “spreading”, however now it’s used for “broadcasting”. In addition to this are neologisms, typically being calques. An instance is phone, which is Greek for “far talk”, translated as દુરભાષ durbhāṣ. Most folks, although, simply use ફોન phon and thus neo-Sanskrit has various levels of acceptance.

So, whereas having distinctive tadbhav units, trendy IA languages have a standard, increased tatsam pool. Also, tatsams and their derived tadbhavs can even co-exist in a language; generally of no consequence and at different occasions with variations in that means:

Tatsam Tadbhav
karma Work—Dharmic spiritual idea of works or deeds whose divine penalties are skilled on this life or the subsequent. kām work [without any religious connotations].
kṣetra Field—Abstract sense, corresponding to a area of data or exercise; khāngī kṣetra → non-public sector. Physical sense, however of upper or particular significance; raṇǎkṣetra → battlefield. khetar area [in agricultural sense].

What stays are phrases of international origin (videśī), in addition to phrases of native origin that can’t be pegged as belonging to any of the three prior classes (deśaj). The former consists primarily of Persian, Arabic, and English, with hint components of Portuguese and Turkish. While the phenomenon of English loanwords is comparatively new, Perso-Arabic has an extended historical past behind it. Both English and Perso-Arabic influences are fairly nationwide phenomena, in a method paralleling tatsam as a standard vocabulary set or bank. What’s extra is how, past a transposition into basic Indo-Aryan, the Perso-Arabic set has additionally been assimilated in a way attribute and related to the precise Indo-Aryan language it’s being utilized in, bringing to thoughts tadbhav.

Perso-Arabic[edit]

India was dominated for a lot of centuries by Persian-speaking Muslims, amongst essentially the most notable being the Delhi Sultanate, and the Mughal dynasty. As a consequence Indian languages have been modified enormously, with the big scale entry of Persian and its many Arabic loans into the Gujarati lexicon. One elementary adoption was Persian’s conjunction “that”, ke. Also, whereas tatsam or Sanskrit is etymologically steady to Gujarati, it’s primarily of a differing grammar (or language), and that as compared whereas Perso-Arabic is etymologically international, it has been in sure situations and to various levels grammatically indigenised. Owing to centuries of scenario and the top of Persian training and energy, (1) Perso-Arabic loans are fairly unlikely to be considered or often known as loans, and (2) extra importantly, these loans have typically been Gujarati-ized. dāvo – declare, fāydo – profit, natījo – consequence, and hamlo – assault, all carry Gujarati’s masculine gender marker, o. khānũ – compartment, has the neuter ũ. Aside from straightforward slotting with the auxiliary karvũ, a couple of phrases have made an entire transition of verbification: kabūlvũ – to confess (fault), kharīdvũ – to purchase, kharǎcvũ – to spend (cash), gujarvũ – to cross. The final three are particular half and parcel.

Below is a desk displaying a variety of these loans. Currently among the etymologies are being referenced to an Urdu dictionary in order that Gujarati’s singular masculine o corresponds to Urdu ā, neuter ũ teams into ā as Urdu has no neuter gender, and Urdu’s Persian z shouldn’t be upheld in Gujarati and corresponds to j or jh. In distinction to trendy Persian, the pronunciation of those loans into Gujarati and different Indo-Aryan languages, in addition to that of Indian-recited Persian, appears to be in step with Persian spoken in Afghanistan and Central Asia, maybe 500 years in the past.

Nouns Adjectives
m n f
fāydo achieve, benefit, profit A khānũ compartment P kharīdī buy(s), procuring P tājũ contemporary P
humlo assault A makān home, constructing A śardī frequent chilly P judũ totally different, separate P
dāvo declare A nasīb luck A bāju aspect P najīk close to P
natījo consequence A śaher metropolis P cījh factor P kharāb dangerous A
gusso anger P medān plain P jindgī life P lāl pink P

Lastly, Persian, being a part of the Indo-Iranian language household as Sanskrit and Gujarati are, met up in some situations with its cognates:

Persian Indo-Aryan English
marăd martya man, mortal
stān sthān place, land
ī īya (adjectival suffix)
band bandh closed, mounted

Zoroastrian Persian refugees often known as Parsis additionally communicate an accordingly Persianized type of Gujarati.

English[edit]

With the top of Perso-Arabic influx, English grew to become the present international supply of latest vocabulary. English had and continues to have a substantial affect over Indian languages. Loanwords embody new improvements and ideas, first launched immediately via British colonial rule, after which streaming in on the idea of continued Anglophone dominance within the Republic of India. Besides the class of latest concepts is the class of English phrases that have already got Gujarati counterparts which find yourself changed or existed alongside with. The main driving pressure behind this latter class must be the persevering with position of English in trendy India as a language of training, status, and mobility. In this fashion, Indian speech could be sprinkled with English phrases and expressions, even switches to complete sentences.See Hinglish, Code-switching.

In issues of sound, English alveolar consonants map as retroflexes quite than dentals. Two new characters have been created in Gujarati to characterize English /æ/’s and /ɔ/’s. Levels of Gujarati-ization in sound fluctuate. Some phrases don’t go far past this primary transpositional rule, and sound very like their English supply, whereas others differ in methods, a type of methods being the carrying of dentals. See Indian English.

As English loanwards are a comparatively new phenomenon, they adhere to English grammar, as tatsam phrases adhere to Sanskrit. That is to not say that essentially the most primary modifications have been underway: many English phrases are pluralised with Gujarati o over English “s”. Also, with Gujarati having three genders, genderless English phrases should take one. Though typically inexplicable, gender project might observe the identical foundation as it’s expressed in Gujarati: vowel sort, and the character of phrase that means.

  • 1 These English types are sometimes used (prominently by NRIs) for these household buddies and elders that aren’t really uncles and aunts however are of the age.

Portuguese[edit]

The smaller foothold the Portuguese had in wider India had linguistic results. Gujarati took up a variety of phrases, whereas elsewhere the affect was nice sufficient to the extent that creole languages got here to be (see Portuguese India, Portuguese-based creole languages in India and Sri Lanka). Comparatively, the influence of Portuguese has been better on coastal languages and their loans are usually nearer to the Portuguese originals. The supply dialect of those loans imparts an earlier pronunciation of ch as an affricate as a substitute of the present normal of [ʃ].

Gujarati Meaning Portuguese
istrī iron(ing) estirar1
mistrī2 carpenter mestre3
sābu cleaning soap sabão
chāvī key chave
tamāku tobacco tabaco
kobī cabbage couve
kāju cashew cajú
pāũ bread pão
baṭāko potato batata
anānas pineapple ananás
pādrī father (in Catholicism) padre
aṅgrej(ī) English (not particularly the language) inglês
nātāl Christmas natal
1 “To stretch (out)”.
2 Common occupational surname.
3 “Master”.

Loans into English[edit]

Bungalow

1676, from Gujarati bangalo, from Hindi bangla “low, thatched house,” lit. “Bengalese,” used elliptically for “house in the Bengal style.”[87]

Coolie

1598, “name given by Europeans to hired laborers in India and China,” from Hindi quli “hired servant,” in all probability from koli, identify of an aboriginal tribe or caste in Gujarat.[88]

Tank

c.1616, “pool or lake for irrigation or drinking water,” a phrase initially introduced by the Portuguese from India, ult. from Gujarati tankh “cistern, underground reservoir for water,” Marathi tanken, or tanka “reservoir of water, tank.” Perhaps from Skt. tadaga-m “pond, lake pool,” and bolstered in later sense of “large artificial container for liquid” (1690) by Port. tanque “reservoir,” from estancar “hold back a current of water,” from V.L. *stanticare (see stanch). But others say the Port. phrase is the supply of the Indian ones.[89]

Grammar[edit]

Gujarati is a head-final, or left-branching language. Adjectives precede nouns, direct objects come earlier than verbs, and there are postpositions. The phrase order of Gujarati is SOV, and there are three genders and two numbers.[90] There are not any particular or indefinite articles. A verb is expressed with its verbal root adopted by suffixes marking facet and settlement in what known as a essential kind, with a doable continuing auxiliary kind derived from to be, marking tense and temper, and likewise exhibiting settlement. Causatives (as much as double) and passives have a morphological foundation.

Sample textual content[edit]

Gujarati script—
ગાંધીજીની ઝૂંપડી-કરાડી
જગ પ્રસિદ્ધ દાંડી કૂચ પછી ગાંધીજીએ અહીં આંબાના વૃક્ષ નીચે ખજૂરી નાં છટિયાંની એક ઝૂંપડીમાં તા.૧૪-૪-૧૯૩૦ થી તા.૪-૫-૧૯૩૦ સુધી નિવાસ કર્યો હતો. દાંડીમાં છઠ્ઠી એપ્રિલે શરૂ કરેલી નિમક કાનૂન (મીઠાના સત્યાગ્રહ) ભંગની લડતને તેમણે અહીંથી વેગ આપી દેશ વ્યાપી બનાવી હતી. અહીંથી જ તેમણે ધરાસણાના મીઠાના અગરો તરફ કૂચ કરવાનો પોતાનો સંકલ્પ બ્રિટિશ વાઈસરૉયને પત્ર લખીને જણાવ્યો હતો.
તા.૪ થી મે ૧૯૩૦ની રાતના બાર વાગ્યા પછી આ સ્થળેથી બ્રિટિશ સરકારે તેમની ધરપકડ કરી હતી.
Devanagari script –
गांधीजीनी झूंपडी-कराडी
जग प्रसिद्ध दांडी कूच पछी गांधीजीए अहीं आंबाना वृक्ष नीचे खजूरीनां छटियांनी एक झूंपडीमां ता.१४-४-१९३०थी ता.४-५-१९३० सुधी निवास कर्यो हतो. दांडीमां छठ्ठी एप्रिले शरू करेली निमक कानून भंगनी लडतने तेमणे अहींथी वेग आपी देश व्यापी बनावी हती. अहींथीज तेमणे धरासणाना मीठाना अगरो तरफ कूच करवानो पोतानो संकल्प ब्रिटिश वाईसरॉयने पत्र लखीने जणाव्यो हतो.
ता.४थी मे १९३०नी रातना बार वाग्या पछी आ स्थळेथी ब्रिटिश सरकारे तेमनी धरपकड करी हती.
Transliteration (IAST)—
gāndhījīnī jhūmpḍī-karāḍī
jag prasiddh dāṇḍī kūc pachī gāndhījīe ahī̃ āmbānā vrukṣ nīce khajūrī nā̃ chaṭiyānnī ek jhūmpḍīmā̃ tā.14-4-1930 thī tā.4-5-1930 sudhī nivās karyo hato. dāṇḍīmā̃ chaṭhṭhī eprile śarū karelī nimak kānūn (mīṭhānā satyāgraha) bhaṅgnī laḍatne temṇe ahīnthī veg āpī deś vyāpī banāvī hatī. ahīnthī ja temṇe dharāsṇānā mīṭhānā agro taraph kūc karvāno potāno saṅkalp briṭiś vāīsarôyane patra lakhīne jaṇāvyo hato.
tā.4thī me 1930nī rātnā bār vāgyā pachī ā sthaḷethī briṭiś sarkāre temnī dharapkaḍ karī hatī.
Transcription (IPA)—
[ɡɑndʱid͡ʒini d͡ʒʱũpɽi-kəɾɑɽi]
[d͡ʒəɡ pɾəsɪddʱ ɖɑɳɖi kut͡ʃ pət͡ʃʰi ɡɑndʱid͡ʒie ə̤ȷ̃ ɑmbɑnɑ ʋɾʊkʃ nit͡ʃe kʰəd͡ʒuɾnɑ̃ t͡ʃʰəʈijɑ̃ni ek d͡ʒʱũpɽimɑ̃ tɑ _________tʰi tɑ|| _______ sudʱi niʋɑs kəɾjoto|| ɖɑɳɖimɑ̃ t͡ʃʰəʈʰʈʰi epɾile ʃəɾu kəɾeli nimək kɑnun bʱəŋɡni ləɽətne tɛmɳe ə̤ȷ̃tʰi ʋeɡ ɑpi deʃ ʋjɑpi bənɑʋiti|| ə̤ȷ̃tʰid͡ʒ tɛmɳe dʱəɾɑsəɽ̃ɑnɑ miʈʰɑnɑ əɡəɾo təɾəf kut͡ʃ kəɾʋɑno potɑno səŋkəlp bɾiʈiʃ ʋɑjsəɾɔjne pətɾə ləkʰine d͡ʒəɽ̃ɑʋjoto]
[tɑ| __tʰi me ____ni ɾɑtnɑ bɑɾ ʋɑɡjɑ pət͡ʃʰi ɑ stʰəɭetʰi bɾiʈiʃ səɾkɑɾe tɛmni dʱəɾpəkəɽ kəɾiti]
Simple gloss—
gandhiji’s hut-karadi
world well-known dandi march after gandhiji right here mango’s tree below palm date’s bark’s one hut-in date.14-4-1930-from date.4-5-1930 till residence achieved was. dandi-in sixth April-at began achieved salt legislation break’s struggle (-to) he here-from velocity gave nation vast made was. right here-from he dharasana’s salt’s mounds in direction of march doing’s self’s resolve British viceroy-to letter written-having notified was.
date.4-from May 1930’s evening’s twelve struck after this place-at-from British authorities his arrest achieved was.
Transliteration and detailed gloss—
gāndhījī-n-ī jhū̃pṛ-ī-∅ Karāṛī
gandhiji–GEN–FEM hut–FEM–SG karadi
jag prasiddh dāṇḍī kūc pachī gāndhījī-e ahī̃ āmb-ā-∅-n-ā vṛkṣ nīce
world well-known dandi march after gandhiji–ERG right here mango–MASC.OBL–SG–GEN–MASC.OBL tree below
khajūr-ī-∅-n-ā̃ chaṭiy-ā̃-n-ī ek jhū̃pṛ-ī-∅-mā̃ tā. 14 4 1930thī tā. 4 5 1930 sudhī
palmdate–FEM–SG–GEN–NEUT.OBL bark–NEUT.PL.OBL–GEN–FEM.OBL one hut–FEM–SG–in date 14 4 1930from date till
nivās kar-y-o ha-t-o . dāṇḍī-mā̃ chaṭhṭhī epril-e śarū kar-el-ī nimak
residence.MASC.SG.OBJ.NOM do–PERF–MASC.SG be–PAST–MASC.SG dandi–in sixth April–at began do–PAST.PTCP–FEM salt
kānūn bhaṅg-n-ī laṛat-∅-ne te-m-ṇe ahī̃-thī veg āp-ī deś vyāpī
legislation break–GEN–FEM.OBL struggle.FEM.OBJ–SG–ACC 3.DIST–HONORIFIC–ERG right here–from velocity–OBJ give–CONJUNCTIVE nation vast
ban-āv-∅-ī ha-t-ī . ahī̃-thī-j te-m-ṇe dharāsaṇā-n-ā
turn out to be–CAUS–PERF–FEM be–PAST–FEM right here–from–INTENSIFIER 3.DIST–HONORIFIC–ERG dharasana–GEN–MASC.PL
mīṭh-ā-n-ā agar-o taraph kūc kar-v-ā-n-o potā-n-o
salt–NEUT.SG.OBL–GEN–MASC.PL mound.MASC–PL in direction of march.MASC.SG do–INF–OBL–GEN–MASC.SG REFL–GEN–MASC.SG
saṅkalp briṭiś vāīsarôy-∅-ne patra lakh-īne jaṇ-āv-y-o ha-t-o . tā.
resolve.MASC.SG.OBJ.ACC British viceroy.OBJ–SG–DAT letter write–CONJUNCTIVE know–CAUS–PERF–MASC.SG be–PAST–MASC.SG date
4-thī me 1930-n-ī rāt-∅-n-ā bār vāg-y-ā pachī ā sthaḷ-e-thī briṭiś
4-th might 1930–GEN–FEM.OBL evening.FEM–SG–GEN–MASC.OBL twelve strike–PERF–OBL after 3.PROX place–at–from British
sarkār-e te-m-n-ī dharpakaṛ kar-∅-ī ha-t-ī .
authorities–ERG 3.DIST–HONORIFIC–GEN–FEM arrest.FEM.SG.OBJ.ACC do–PERF–FEM be–PAST–FEM
Translation—
Gandhiji’s hut-Karadi
After the world-famous Dandi March Gandhiji resided right here in a date palm bark hut beneath a/the mango tree, from 14-4-1930 to 4-5-1930. From right here he gave velocity to and unfold country-wide the anti-Salt Law wrestle, began in Dandi on 6 April. From right here, writing in a letter, he notified the British Viceroy of his resolve of marching in direction of the salt mounds of Dharasana.
The British authorities arrested him at this location, after twelve o’clock on the evening of 4 May 1930.

Translation (supplied at location)—

Gandhiji’s hut-Karadi
Here below the mango tree within the hut fabricated from palm leaves (khajoori) Gandhiji stayed from 14-4-1930 to 4-5-1930 after the world well-known Dandi march. From right here he gave impetus to the civil disobedience motion for breaking the salt act began on 6 April at Dandi and turned it right into a nationwide motion. It was additionally from this place that he wrote a letter to the British viceroy expressing his agency resolve to march to the salt works at Dharasana.
This is the place from the place he was arrested by the British authorities after midnight on 4 May 1930.

See additionally[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Gujarati language at Ethnologue (twenty second ed., 2019)
  2. ^ a b “Scheduled Languages in descending order of speaker’s strength – 2011” (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  3. ^ Ernst Kausen, 2006. Die Klassifikation der indogermanischen Sprachen (Microsoft Word, 133 KB)
  4. ^ “Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 – Chapter 1: Founding Provisions”. www.gov.za. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  5. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh.
  6. ^ Mikael Parkvall, “Världens 100 största språk 2007” (The World’s 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin. Asterisks mark the 2010 estimates for the highest dozen languages.
  7. ^ “Gujarati: The language spoken by more than 55 million people”. The Straits Times. 19 January 2017. Gujarati is no less than 700 years previous and is spoken by greater than 55 million folks worldwide.
  8. ^ Parekh, Rauf (20 January 2017). “Situationer: The future of Gujarati language in Pakistan”. Dawn.
  9. ^ Chitnis, Deepak (14 August 2013). “Hindi and Gujarati fastest growing Indian languages in the US”. The American Bazaar.
  10. ^ Bhattacharyya, Anirudh (3 August 2017). “Punjabi among top three immigrant languages in Canada”. Hindustan Times.
  11. ^ Edwards, Viv. “Gujarati today”. BBC. Gujaratis kind the second largest of the British South Asian speech communities, with essential settlements in Leicester and Coventry within the Midlands, within the northern textile cities and in Greater London.
  12. ^ a b Gujarati language at Ethnologue (twentieth ed., 2017)
  13. ^ Barlas, Robert; Yong, Jui Lin (2010). Uganda. Marshall Cavendish. p. 96. ISBN 9780761448594. Of the non-Ugandan languages, Hindi and Gujarati are generally spoken amongst members of the Asian Hindu group that migrated to Uganda throughout the early a part of the twentieth century.
  14. ^ “Indian South Africans”. South African History Online. English is spoken as a primary language by most Indian South Africans, though a minority of the Indian South African inhabitants, particularly the elders, nonetheless communicate some Indian languages. These languages embody Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, Punjabi, and Gujarati.
  15. ^ “Gujarati Community in Hong Kong organizes grand reception in the honour of Gujarat CM”. Official Portal of Gujarat Government. Addressing the group in Gujarati
  16. ^ “Indians make up over 1 per cent of Australia’s population”. The Indian Express. 27 June 2014.
  17. ^ Gujarati language at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  18. ^ Dalby 1998, p. 237
  19. ^ Ajay Mitra Shastri; R. Okay. Sharma; Devendra Handa (2005), Revealing India’s previous: current traits in artwork and archaeology, Aryan Books International, p. 227, ISBN 8173052875, It is a longtime truth that in Tenth-Eleventh century … Interestingly the language was often known as the Gujjar Bhakha.
  20. ^ Okay. Ayyappapanicker (1997), Medieval Indian literature: an anthology, Volume 3, Sahitya Akademi, p. 91, ISBN 9788126003655
  21. ^ Mistry 2003, p. 115
  22. ^ Smith, J.D. (2001) “Rajasthani.” Facts concerning the world’s languages: An encyclopedia of the world’s main languages, previous and current. Ed. Jane Garry, and Carl Rubino: New England Publishing Associates. pp. 591-593.
  23. ^ Rita Kothari (8 April 2014). Translating India. Routledge. pp. 73–74. ISBN 978-1-317-64216-9. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  24. ^ Yashaschandra, S. (1995) “Towards Hind Svaraj: An Interpretation of the Rise of Prose in 19th-century Gujarati Literature.” Social Scientist. Vol. 23, No. 10/12. pp. 41–55.
  25. ^ SEBASTIAN, V (2009). “Gandhi and the Standardisation of Gujarati”. Economic and Political Weekly. 44 (31): 94–101. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 25663396.
  26. ^ Benson, Eugene (30 November 2004). Encyclopedia of Post-Colonial Literatures in English. Routledge. p. 563. ISBN 9781134468485. Gandhi’s seminal work, ‘Hind Swaraj’ (‘Indian Home Role’), appeared within the columns of Indian Opinion in 1909. Originally written in his mom tongue, Gujarati, it was translated into English by Gandhi and revealed as Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Role in 1910.
  27. ^ Timeline: Personalities, Story of Pakistan. “Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948)”. Retrieved 12 May 2007.
  28. ^ Gujarati language at Ethnologue (sixteenth ed., 2009)
  29. ^ Rehman, Zia Ur (18 August 2015). “With a handful of subbers, two newspapers barely keeping Gujarati alive in Karachi”. The News International. Retrieved 14 January 2017. In Pakistan, the vast majority of Gujarati-speaking communities are in Karachi together with Dawoodi Bohras, Ismaili Khojas, Memons, Kathiawaris, Katchhis, Parsis (Zoroastrians) and Hindus, mentioned Gul Hasan Kalmati, a researcher who authored “Karachi, Sindh Jee Marvi”, a guide discussing town and its indigenous communities. Although there are not any official statistics obtainable, group leaders declare that there are three million Gujarati-speakers in Karachi – roughly round 15 p.c of town’s total inhabitants.
  30. ^ a b William Frawley (May 2003). International Encyclopedia of Linguistics: 4-Volume Set. Oxford University Press, USA. pp. 292–. ISBN 978-0-19-513977-8.
  31. ^ “Jinnah didn’t know Urdu, was fluent in Gujarati”. The Times of India. 30 August 2009. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  32. ^ a b Kachru, Braj B.; Kachru, Yamuna; Sridhar, S. N. (2008). Language in South Asia. Cambridge University Press. p. 531. ISBN 9781139465502.
  33. ^ The geographical distribution could be present in ‘Linguistic Survey of India’ by George A. Grierson.
  34. ^ “Gujarati”.
  35. ^ “51st REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA” (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. 15 July 2015. Archived from the unique (PDF) on 16 February 2018. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  36. ^ A simplified grammar of the Gujarati language by William St. Clair Tisdall (1892)
  37. ^ Gujarati language at Ethnologue (nineteenth ed., 2016)
  38. ^ Ogilvie, Sarah (2009), Keith Brown (ed.), Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World (1st ed.), Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, ISBN 9780080877754 https://books.google.com/books?id=F2SRqDzB50wC&pg=PA469
  39. ^ Snell, R. (2000) Teach Yourself Beginner’s Hindi Script. Hodder & Stoughton. pp. 83–86.
  40. ^ Bungalow. Online Etymology Dictionary.
  41. ^ Coolie. Online Etymology Dictionary.
  42. ^ Tank. Online Etymology Dictionary.
  43. ^ “Facts about Gujarat”.

Bibliography[edit]

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External hyperlinks[edit]


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