Ford Motor Company - Wikipedia

Ford Motor Company – Wikipedia

American multinational automaker

Coordinates: 42°18′53″N 83°12′38″W / 42.31472°N 83.21056°W / 42.31472; -83.21056

Ford Motor Company (generally generally known as Ford) is an American multinational car producer headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, United States. It was based by Henry Ford and included on June 16, 1903. The firm sells cars and industrial automobiles below the Ford model, and luxurious vehicles below its Lincoln luxurious model. Ford additionally owns Brazilian SUV producer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in Jiangling Motors.[5] It additionally has joint-ventures in China (Changan Ford), Taiwan (Ford Lio Ho), Thailand (AutoAlliance Thailand), Turkey (Ford Otosan), and Russia (Ford Sollers). The firm is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is managed by the Ford household; they’ve minority possession however the majority of the voting energy.[6][4]

Ford launched strategies for large-scale manufacturing of vehicles and large-scale administration of an industrial workforce utilizing elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by transferring meeting traces; by 1914, these strategies had been recognized world wide as Fordism. Ford’s former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, had been offered to the Indian automaker Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010.[7] In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury model, below which it had marketed entry-level luxurious vehicles within the United States, Canada, Mexico, and the Middle East since 1938.

Ford is the second-largest U.S.-based automaker (behind General Motors) and the fifth-largest on the earth (behind Toyota, Volkswagen, Hyundai and General Motors) primarily based on 2015 automobile manufacturing. At the tip of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe.[8] The firm went public in 1956 however the Ford household, by way of particular Class B shares, nonetheless retain 40 p.c voting rights.[9][4] During the monetary disaster originally of the twenty first century, it struggled financially to the purpose of collapse which was largely prevented by President George W. Bush asserting his emergency monetary rescue plan to assist Ford Motors in addition to Chrysler LLC and General Motors, making instantly obtainable $13.4 billion to the automaker.[10] Ford Motors has since returned to profitability.[11] Ford was the eleventh-ranked total American-based firm within the 2018 Fortune 500 listing, primarily based on world revenues in 2017 of $156.7 billion.[12] In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million cars[13] and employed about 213,000 staff at round 90 crops and services worldwide.

History

twentieth century

The Henry Ford Company was Henry Ford’s first try at a automotive manufacturing firm and was established on November 3, 1901. This turned the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22, 1902, after Ford left with the rights to his identify.[14] The Ford Motor Company was launched in a transformed manufacturing facility in 1903 with $28,000 (equal to $807,000 in 2020) in money from twelve buyers, most notably John and Horace Dodge (who would later discovered their very own automotive firm). The first president was not Ford, however native banker John S. Gray, who was chosen to assuage buyers’ fears that Ford would depart the brand new firm the best way he had left its predecessor. During its early years, the corporate produced only a few vehicles a day at its manufacturing facility on Mack Avenue and later at its manufacturing facility on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three males labored on every automotive, assembling it from components made principally by provider corporations contracting for Ford. Within a decade, the corporate would lead the world within the growth and refinement of the meeting line idea, and Ford quickly introduced a lot of the half manufacturing in-house (vertical integration).

Henry Ford was 39 years outdated when he based the Ford Motor Company, which might go on to change into one of many world’s largest and most worthwhile corporations. It has been in steady household management for over 100 years and is among the largest family-controlled corporations on the earth.[citation needed]

The first gasoline-powered car had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Karl Benz (Benz Patent-Motorwagen). More environment friendly manufacturing strategies had been wanted to make cars reasonably priced for the center class, to which Ford contributed by, as an example, introducing the primary transferring meeting line in 1913 on the Ford manufacturing facility in Highland Park.[citation needed]

Between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, Ok, N, R, and S. Hundreds or just a few thousand of most of those had been offered per 12 months. In 1908, Ford launched the mass-produced Model T, which totaled tens of millions offered over practically 20 years. In 1927, Ford changed the T with the Model A, the primary automotive with security glass within the windshield.[15] Ford launched the primary low-priced automotive with a V8 engine in 1932.[citation needed]

In an try and compete with General Motors’ mid-priced Pontiac, Oldsmobile, and Buick, Ford created the Mercury in 1939 as a higher-priced companion automotive to Ford. Henry Ford bought the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, as a way to compete with such manufacturers as Cadillac and Packard for the posh phase of the car market.[citation needed]

In 1929, Ford was contracted by the federal government of the Soviet Union to arrange the Gorky Automobile Plant in Russia initially producing Ford Model A and AAs thereby taking part in an essential position within the industrialization of that nation.[16]

Ford Germany, Ford’s subsidiary in Germany, produced navy automobiles and different tools for Nazi Germany’s battle effort. Some of Ford’s operations in Germany on the time had been run utilizing pressured labor.

The creation of a scientific laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered fundamental analysis, led to Ford’s unlikely involvement in superconductivity analysis. In 1964, Ford Research Labs made a key breakthrough with the invention of a superconducting quantum interference gadget or SQUID.[17]

Ford provided the Lifeguard security bundle from 1956, which included such improvements as a typical deep-dish steering wheel, non-obligatory entrance, and, for the primary time in a automotive, rear seatbelts, and an non-obligatory padded sprint.[18] Ford launched child-proof door locks into its merchandise in 1957, and, in the identical 12 months, provided the primary retractable hardtop on a mass-produced six-seater automotive.[citation needed]

In late 1955, Ford established the Continental division as a separate luxurious automotive division. This division was answerable for the manufacture and sale of the well-known Continental Mark II. At the identical time, the Edsel division was created to design and market that automotive beginning with the 1958 mannequin 12 months. Due to restricted gross sales of the Continental and the Edsel catastrophe, Ford merged Mercury, Edsel, and Lincoln into “M-E-L,” which reverted to “Lincoln-Mercury” after Edsel’s November 1959 demise.[citation needed]

The Ford Mustang was launched on April 17, 1964 throughout New York World’s Fair (the place Ford had a pavilion made by The Walt Disney Company.)[19][20] In 1965, Ford launched the seat belt reminder mild.[citation needed]

With the Eighties, Ford launched a number of extremely profitable automobiles world wide. During the Eighties, Ford started utilizing the promoting slogan, “Have you driven a Ford, lately?” to introduce new clients to their model and make their automobiles seem extra trendy. In 1990 and 1994 respectively, Ford additionally acquired Jaguar Cars and Aston Martin.[21] During the mid- to late-Nineteen Nineties, Ford continued to promote massive numbers of automobiles, in a booming American economic system with a hovering inventory market and low gas costs.[citation needed]

With the daybreak of the brand new century, legacy well being care prices, increased gas costs, and a faltering economic system led to falling market shares, declining gross sales, and diminished revenue margins. Most of the company earnings got here from financing shopper car loans by way of Ford Motor Credit Company.[22]

twenty first century

By 2005, each Ford and GM’s company bonds had been downgraded to junk standing[23] because of excessive U.S. well being care prices for an growing older workforce, hovering gasoline costs, eroding market share, and an overdependence on declining SUV gross sales. Profit margins decreased on massive automobiles because of elevated “incentives” (within the type of rebates or low-interest financing) to offset declining demand.[24] In the latter half of 2005, Chairman Bill Ford requested newly appointed Ford Americas Division President Mark Fields to develop a plan to return the corporate to profitability. Fields previewed the Plan, named The Way Forward, on the December 7, 2005, board assembly of the corporate and it was unveiled to the general public on January 23, 2006. “The Way Forward” included resizing the corporate to match market realities, dropping some unprofitable and inefficient fashions, consolidating manufacturing traces, closing 14 factories and reducing 30,000 jobs.[25]

Ford moved to introduce a variety of recent automobiles, together with “Crossover SUVs” constructed on unibody automotive platforms, reasonably than extra body-on-frame chassis. In growing the hybrid electrical powertrain applied sciences for the Ford Escape Hybrid SUV, Ford licensed comparable Toyota hybrid applied sciences[26] to keep away from patent infringements.[27] Ford introduced that it’ll staff up with electrical energy provide firm Southern California Edison (SCE) to look at the way forward for plug-in hybrids by way of how house and automobile vitality methods will work with {the electrical} grid. Under the multimillion-dollar, multi-year mission, Ford will convert an illustration fleet of Ford Escape Hybrids into plug-in hybrids, and SCE will consider how the automobiles may work together with the house and the utility’s electrical grid. Some of the automobiles will likely be evaluated “in typical customer settings”, in response to Ford.[28][29]

William Clay Ford Jr., great-grandson of Henry Ford (and higher recognized by his nickname “Bill”), was appointed govt chairman in 1998, and likewise turned chief govt officer of the corporate in 2001, with the departure of Jacques Nasser, changing into the primary member of the Ford household to go the corporate for the reason that retirement of his uncle, Henry Ford II, in 1982. Ford offered motorsport engineering firm Cosworth to Gerald Forsythe and Kevin Kalkhoven in 2004, the beginning of a lower in Ford’s motorsport involvement. Upon the retirement of president and chief operations officer Jim Padilla in April 2006, Bill Ford assumed his roles as nicely. Five months later, in September, Ford named Alan Mulally as president and CEO, with Ford persevering with as govt chairman. In December 2006, the corporate raised its borrowing capability to about $25 billion, putting considerably all company property as collateral.[30] Chairman Bill Ford has said that “bankruptcy is not an option”.[31] Ford and the United Auto Workers, representing roughly 46,000 hourly employees in North America, agreed to a historic contract settlement in November 2007 giving the corporate a considerable break by way of its ongoing retiree well being care prices and different financial points. The settlement included the institution of a company-funded, independently run Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association (VEBA) belief to shift the burden of retiree well being care from the corporate’s books, thereby enhancing its steadiness sheet. This association took impact on January 1, 2010. As an indication of its presently sturdy money place, Ford contributed its total present legal responsibility (estimated at roughly US$5.5 billion as of December 31, 2009) to the VEBA in money, and likewise pre-paid US$500 million of its future liabilities to the fund. The settlement additionally offers hourly employees the job safety they had been in search of by having the corporate decide to substantial investments in most of its factories.

The automaker reported the most important annual loss in firm historical past in 2006 of $12.7 billion,[32] and estimated that it might not return to profitability till 2009.[33] However, Ford stunned Wall Street within the second quarter of 2007 by posting a $750 million revenue. Despite the positive aspects, the corporate completed the 12 months with a $2.7 billion loss, largely attributed to finance restructuring at Volvo.[34]

On June 2, 2008, Ford offered its Jaguar and Land Rover operations to Tata Motors for $2.3 billion.[35][36]

During congressional hearings held in November 2008 at Washington D.C., and in a present of assist, Ford’s Alan Mulally said that “We at Ford are hopeful that we have enough liquidity. But we also must prepare ourselves for the prospect of further deteriorating economic conditions”. Mulally went on to state that “The collapse of one of our competitors would have a severe impact on Ford” and that Ford Motor Company helps each Chrysler and General Motors of their seek for authorities bridge loans within the face of situations attributable to the 2008 monetary disaster.[37][38] Together, the three corporations offered motion plans for the sustainability of the trade. Mulally said that “In addition to our plan, we are also here today to request support for the industry. In the near-term, Ford does not require access to a government bridge loan. However, we request a credit line of $9 billion as a critical backstop or safeguard against worsening conditions as we drive transformational change in our company”[39] GM and Chrysler obtained authorities loans and financing by way of T.A.R.P. laws funding provisions.[40]

On December 19, the price of credit default swaps to insure the debt of Ford was 68 p.c the sum insured for 5 years along with annual funds of 5 p.c. That meant $6.8 million paid upfront to insure $10 million in debt, along with funds of $500,000 per 12 months.[41] In January 2009, Ford reported a $14.6 billion loss within the previous 12 months, a report for the corporate. The firm retained ample liquidity to fund its operations. Through April 2009, Ford’s technique of debt for fairness exchanges erased $9.9 billion in liabilities (28% of its whole) as a way to leverage its money place.[42] These actions yielded Ford a $2.7 billion revenue in fiscal 12 months 2009, the corporate’s first full-year revenue in 4 years.[43] In 2012, Ford’s company bonds had been upgraded from junk to funding grade once more, citing sustainable, lasting enhancements.[44]

On October 29, 2012, Ford introduced the sale of its local weather management parts enterprise, its final remaining automotive parts operation, to Detroit Thermal Systems LLC for an undisclosed value.[45]

On November 1, 2012, Ford introduced that CEO Alan Mulally will stick with the corporate till 2014. Ford additionally named Mark Fields, the president of operations in Americas, as its new chief working officer[46] Ford’s CEO Mulally was paid a compensation of over $174 million in his earlier seven years at Ford since 2006. The beneficiant quantity has been a sore level for some employees of the corporate.[47]

In April 2016, Ford introduced a plan to modernize its Dearborn engineering and headquarters campuses by way of a ten-year constructing mission. The finish end result would see the variety of Ford staff working in these areas doubling, to 24,000. During development, some 2000 of the staff had been relocated out of the campus to a brief location in a disused part of the native shopping center.[48] Facilities would even be altered to permit ride-sharing and electrical and self-driving automobiles.[49] Estimates of the development price had been $1.2 billion.[50]

The historic, as soon as deserted Michigan Central Station was bought by Ford Motor Company in May 2018 and is anticipated to endure a major four-year renovation

On January 3, 2017, Ford CEO Mark Fields introduced that in a “vote of confidence” due to the pro-business local weather being fostered partly by President-elect Donald Trump, Ford has canceled plans to speculate $1.6 billion in a brand new plant in Mexico to fabricate the Ford Focus. The Ford Focus will now be manufactured within the present plant in Mexico. Instead, Fields introduced that Ford will likely be investing $700 million in Michigan, which it plans to make use of to create 700 new jobs.[51] Also in 2017, Ford started growth of a brand new mixed-use city campus within the Corktown neighborhood of Detroit, with its buy, renovation, and occupation of The Factory at Michigan and Rosa Parks. The new web site was anticipated to have a serious deal with the event of autonomous automobile and electrical automobile know-how.[52] Ford later started shopping for up different parcels of land in Corktown together with a really high-profile buy of Michigan Central Station which is deliberate to change into the hub of their Corktown campus, and the adjoining Roosevelt Warehouse.[53] Ford expects to maneuver 2,500 of its staff, roughly 5 p.c of its southeast Michigan workforce, to the campus with area for an extra 2,500 entrepreneurs, know-how corporations and companions.[54] Bill Ford envisioned the first-floor concourse of the prepare station to be a public gathering place with shops and eating places.[55]

In February 2017, Ford Motor Co. acquired majority possession of Argo AI, a self-driving automotive startup.[56]

In May 2017, Ford introduced cuts to its world workforce amid efforts to handle the corporate’s declining share value and to enhance earnings. The firm is focusing on $3 billion in price discount and an almost 10% discount within the salaried workforce in Asia and North America to boost earnings in 2018.[57][58] Jim Hackett was introduced to interchange Mark Fields as CEO of Ford Motor. Mr. Hackett most not too long ago oversaw the formation of Ford Smart Mobility, a unit answerable for experimenting with car-sharing packages, self-driving ventures and different packages aimed toward serving to Ford higher compete with Uber, Alphabet Inc. and different tech giants trying to edge in on the auto trade.[59][60]

On April 25, 2018, Ford introduced that it’ll discontinue passenger vehicles within the North American market within the subsequent 4 years, aside from the Mustang, because of declining demand and profitability.[61] The Focus Active, a crossover SUV primarily based on the newly unveiled fourth-generation Focus, was additionally supposed to be marketed within the United States. Due to the automobile being manufactured in China, Ford later introduced that it might not launch the Focus Active within the United States, because of tariffs imposed by the Trump administration on Chinese exports.[62][63]

In March 2020, the Detroit United Auto Workers union introduced that after dialogue with the leaders of General Motors, Ford, and Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, the carmakers would partially shut down factories on a “rotating” foundation to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic.[64] On March 24, representatives of Ford introduced that manufacturing within the US, Canada, and Mexico is not going to resume on March 30 because it was initially deliberate amid the additional coronavirus pandemic unfold.[65] In the primary quarter of 2020, Ford’s gross sales dropped by 15%, entailing the lack of $2 billion.[66]

With the change within the demand for the game automobiles, on January 6, 2021, Ford reported a gross sales fall of 9.8% within the fourth quarter. In truth, Ford offered 542,749 automobiles evaluating to 601,862 in 2019.[67]

In April 2021, Ford mentioned that it’ll present Covid-19 vaccines for its staff who will get them on the firm, originally the vaccination program will likely be in Southeast Michigan, Missouri and Ohio, however will likely be expanded in a while to different places.[68]

Logo evolution

Corporate affairs

Executive administration

Members of the Ford board as of October 2018 are: Stephen Butler, Kimberly Casiano, Anthony F. Earley, Jr., Edsel Ford II, William Clay Ford Jr. (govt chairman), Jim Hackett (president and CEO), William W. Helman IV, William E. Kennard, John C. Lechleiter, Ellen Marram, John L. Thornton, John Veihmeyer, Lynn Vojvodich, and John S. Weinberg.[69]

In August 2020, it was revealed that Jim Farley is to change into the brand new chief govt officer of the corporate; he beforehand served as Ford’s chief working officer. The firm’s former CEO, Hackett, will keep within the firm as an advisor till the second quarter of 2021.[70]

Ford Motor Company Fund

The Ford Motor Company Fund (often known as Ford Fund, not affiliated with the Ford Foundation), primarily based in Dearborn, Michigan, is the philanthropic arm of the Ford Motor Company.[71] Established in 1949[72] by Henry Ford II[citation needed], Ford Fund is a nonprofit company basis[73] financed by contributions from Ford Motor Company. In 2017, Ford Fund contributed $63 million[74] to varied causes[71] with a deal with training, driving safely and neighborhood constructing.

The Ford Driving Skills for Life program is a driver security program aimed toward teenagers that had been developed along with the Governors Highway Safety Association and security specialists.[75] The Ford Volunteer Corps permits Ford staff and retirees to join volunteering work on native initiatives in additional than 40 nations.[76] The Ford Fund invests $18 million yearly in training within the United States and world wide, however accepts purposes solely from nonprofit organizations registered within the U.S.[77] Education packages and scholarships embrace Alan Mulally Engineering Scholarship, Ford Blue Oval Scholars Program, Ford College Community Challenge (Ford C3), Ford Driving Dreams Tour, Ford Fund/Detroit Free Press Journalism Scholarship, Ford Next Generation Learning (Ford NGL), Grants to Individuals Program, HBCU Community Challenge, Smithsonian Latino Center Young Ambassadors Program, and William Clay Ford Automotive Design Scholarship.

Operations

Ford has had manufacturing operations worldwide, together with within the United States, Canada, Mexico, China, India, the United Kingdom, Germany, Turkey, Brazil, Argentina, Australia, and South Africa. Ford additionally has a cooperative settlement with Russian automaker GAZ.

North America

In May 2010, Ford reported that its gross sales elevated 23% for the month, and that 37% of its gross sales got here from fleet gross sales.[78] In June 2010, Sales to particular person clients at dealerships elevated 13% whereas fleet gross sales rose by 32%.[79] In the primary seven months of 2010, fleet gross sales of Ford for a similar interval rose 35% to 386,000 items whereas retail gross sales enhance 19%.[80] Fleet gross sales account for 39 p.c of Chrysler’s gross sales and 31 p.c for GM’s.[80]

Europe

At first, Ford in Germany and Ford in Britain constructed totally different fashions from each other till 1965, when the Ford Transit and later the Ford Escort and the Ford Capri turned widespread to each corporations. In 1970, the Ford Taunus and the Ford Cortina got here into manufacturing with a typical base development, each fashions being produced in left hand drive and proper hand drive. Later on, the fashions turned an identical and the respective fashions right- and left-hand-drive solely. Rationalisation of mannequin ranges meant that manufacturing of many fashions within the UK switched to elsewhere in Europe, together with Belgium and Spain in addition to Germany. The Ford Sierra changed the Taunus and Cortina in 1982, drawing criticism for its radical aerodynamic styling, which was quickly given nicknames, the “Jellymould” and “The Salesman’s Spaceship.”

In February 2002, Ford ended automotive manufacturing within the UK. It was the primary time in 90 years that Ford vehicles had not been made in Britain, though manufacturing of the Transit van continued on the firm’s Southampton facility till mid-2013, engines at Bridgend and Dagenham, and transmissions at Halewood. Development of European Ford is broadly cut up between Dunton in Essex (powertrain, Fiesta/Ka, and industrial automobiles) and Cologne (physique, chassis, electrical, Focus, Mondeo) in Germany. Ford additionally produced the Thames vary of economic automobiles, though using this model identify was discontinued circa 1965. Elsewhere in continental Europe, Ford assembles the Mondeo, Galaxy, S-Max[82] and Kuga[83] in Valencia (Spain), Fiesta in Cologne (Germany), Focus in Saarlouis (Germany), Ecosport[84] and Puma[85] in Craiova (Romania).

Ford additionally owns a joint-venture manufacturing plant in Turkey. Ford Otosan, established within the Nineteen Seventies, manufactures the Transit Connect compact panel van in addition to the “Jumbo” and long-wheelbase variations of the full-size Transit. This new manufacturing facility was arrange close to Kocaeli in 2002, and its opening marked the tip of Transit meeting in Genk.

Another three way partnership plant close to Setúbal in Portugal, arrange in collaboration with Volkswagen, previously assembled the Galaxy people-carrier in addition to its sister ships, the VW Sharan and SEAT Alhambra. With the introduction of the third technology of the Galaxy, Ford has moved the manufacturing of the people-carrier to the Genk plant, with Volkswagen taking up sole possession of the Setúbal facility.

In 2008, Ford acquired a majority stake in Automobile Craiova, Romania. Starting 2009, the Ford Transit Connect was Ford’s first mannequin produced in Craiova, adopted, in 2012, by low-capacity automotive engines and a brand new small class automotive, the B-Max.[86]

Its 1959 Anglia two-door saloon was one of the quirky-looking small household vehicles in Europe on the time of its launch, however consumers quickly turned accustomed to its seems and it was vastly fashionable with British consumers particularly. It was nonetheless promoting nicely when changed by the extra sensible Escort in 1967.

The third incarnation of the Ford Escort was launched in 1980 and marked the corporate’s transfer from rear-wheel drive saloons to front-wheel drive hatchbacks within the small household automotive sector.

The fourth-generation Escort was produced from 1990 till 2000, though its successor – the Focus – had been on sale since 1998. On its launch, the Focus was arguably essentially the most dramatic-looking and fine-handling small household vehicles on sale and offered in big volumes proper as much as the launch of the next-generation Focus on the finish of 2004.

The 1982 Ford Sierra – alternative for the long-running and massively fashionable Cortina and Taunus fashions – was a style-setter on the time of its launch. Its ultramodern aerodynamic design was a world away from a boxy, sharp-edged Cortina, and it was massively fashionable nearly in all places it was offered. A sequence of updates stored it trying comparatively contemporary till it was changed by the front-wheel-drive Mondeo at the beginning of 1993.

The rise in reputation of small vehicles throughout the Nineteen Seventies noticed Ford enter the mini-car market in 1976 with its Fiesta hatchback. Most of its manufacturing was concentrated at Valencia in Spain, and the Fiesta offered in big figures from the very begin. An replace in 1983 and the launch of an all-new mannequin in 1989 strengthened its place within the small automotive market.

On October 24, 2012, Ford introduced that it might be closing its Genk meeting plant in japanese Belgium by the tip of 2014.[87]

In 2015, Ford introduced that it took management of Ford Sollers, Ford’s three way partnership with Russian firm Sollers.[88][89]

In September 2018, on the IAA Commercial Vehicles present in Hannover, Germany, Ford launched an electrical tractor-trailer idea automobile dubbed the F-Vision, which might have Level 4 autonomous driving functionality.[90]

East and Southeast Asia

Ford shaped its first passenger-vehicle three way partnership in China in 2001, six years behind GM and greater than a decade after VW. It has spent as of 2013 $4.9 billion to broaden its lineup and double manufacturing capability in China to 600,000 automobiles. This consists of Ford’s largest-ever manufacturing facility complicated within the southwestern metropolis of Chongqing. Ford had 2.5% of the Chinese market in 2013, whereas VW managed 14.5% and GM had 15.6%, in response to advisor LMC Automotive. GM outsells Ford in China by greater than six-to-one.[91] Ford’s presence in Asia has historically been a lot smaller, confined to Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, the Philippines, and Taiwan, the place Ford has had a three way partnership with Lio Ho for the reason that Nineteen Seventies. Ford started meeting of vehicles in Thailand in 1960, however withdrew from the nation in 1976, and didn’t return till 1995 when it shaped a three way partnership with Mazda referred to as Auto Alliance.[92] Now primarily based within the Bo-win Sub District of the Sriracha District in Chonburi, the manufacturing facility nonetheless produces passenger cars. The manufacturing facility, inbuilt 1941 in Singapore, was quickly taken over by the Japanese throughout the battle and was the location of a give up of the British to the Japanese, on the manufacturing facility web site which is now a nationwide monument in Singapore.
On April 30, 2013, Ford Motor Co. launched their automotive and truck line in Myanmar. Previously, heavy importation taxes had stifled imported automotive purchases in Myanmar, however because of forex reform, lifting of earlier import restrictions, and the abolishment of shadow forex, Myanmar’s automotive market had grown in demand.[93]

South Korea

In 1967, Ford partnered with the South Korean firm Hyundai, and on the new manufacturing facility in Ulsan, South Korea, constructed the European Ford Cortina till 1974 when Hyundai launched their all-new Hyundai Pony in 1975. Ford then developed a relationship with Korea’s oldest automotive producer Kia which constructed automobiles co-engineered with Mazda, later promoting the Ford Festiva from 1988 to 1993, and the Ford Aspire from 1994 to 1997 for export to the United States. With the acquisition of a stake in Japanese producer Mazda in 1979, Ford started promoting Mazda’s Familia and Capella because the Ford Laser and Telstar all through the area, changing the European-sourced Escort and Cortina. From 1989 to 1996, Kia imported the Mercury Sable from Ford within the U.S. and offered them in South Korea because the Kia Sable. Though the Sable was branded and marketed as a Kia, it retained the Mercury badges and emblem. Ford misplaced their Kia curiosity to Hyundai in 1998 throughout the Asian monetary disaster. Kia had declared chapter in 1997; in 1998, Hyundai Motor Company acquired 51% of the corporate, outbidding Ford which had owned an curiosity in Kia Motors since 1986.[94] After subsequent divestments,[95] Hyundai Motor Company owns lower than 50% of the corporate however stays Kia’s largest stakeholder.

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As of 2020, Ford sells the Explorer, Mondeo, and Mustang,[96] in addition to the Lincoln Aviator, Continental, Corsair, MKZ, and Nautilus in South Korea.[97]

South and West Asia

Ford India started manufacturing in 1998 at Chennai, Tamil Nadu, with its Ford Escort mannequin, which was later changed by the domestically produced Ford Ikon in 2001. It has since added the Fusion, Fiesta, Mondeo and Endeavour fashions to its product line.

On March 9, 2010, Ford launched its first made-for-India compact automotive. Starting at ₹349,900, the Figo was Ford’s first automotive designed and priced for the mass Indian market.[98] On July 28, 2011, Ford India signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the State of Gujarat for the development of an meeting and engine plant in Sanand and deliberate to speculate roughly US$1 billion on a 460-acre web site.[99] In 2019, the corporate and Mahindra & Mahindra shaped a three way partnership to develop, market and distribute Ford-branded automobiles in India.[100]

Ford’s market presence within the Middle East has historically been small, partly because of earlier Arab boycotts of corporations coping with Israel. Ford and Lincoln automobiles are presently marketed in ten nations within the area.[101] Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates are the most important markets. Ford additionally established itself in Egypt in 1926 however confronted an uphill battle throughout the Fifties because of the hostile nationalist enterprise atmosphere.[102] Ford’s distributor in Saudi Arabia introduced in February 2003 that it had offered 100,000 Ford and Lincoln automobiles since commencing gross sales in November 1986. Half of the Ford and Lincoln automobiles offered in that nation had been Ford Crown Victorias.[103] In 2004, Ford offered 30,000 items within the area, falling far in need of General Motors’ 88,852 items and Nissan Motors’ 75,000 items.

South America

In South America, Ford’s main operations are in Brazil, Argentina, and Ford Andina[104] (Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela). Ford employs over 18,000 individuals and operates seven meeting or different crops within the area.[105] In 1987, Ford Brasil and Ford Motor Argentina merged their operations with the Brazilian and Argentine operations of Volkswagen Group, forming a brand new joint-venture firm referred to as Autolatina with a shared mannequin vary.[106] Autolatina was dissolved in 1995.[106]

In early 2021, Ford’s Brazil department introduced it might finish fully stop manufacturing within the nation over the course of some months.[107]

Africa

In Africa, Ford’s market presence has historically been strongest in South Africa and neighbouring nations, with solely vans being offered elsewhere on the continent. Ford in South Africa started by importing kits from Canada to be assembled at its Port Elizabeth facility. Later Ford sourced its fashions from the UK and Australia, with native variations of the Ford Cortina together with the XR6, with a 3.0 V6 engine, and a Cortina-based ‘bakkie’ or pick-up, which was exported to the UK. In the mid-Eighties, Ford merged with a rival firm, owned by Anglo American, to kind the South African Motor Corporation (Samcor).[108]

Following worldwide condemnation of apartheid, Ford divested from South Africa in 1988, and offered its stake in Samcor, though it licensed using its model identify to the corporate.[109] Samcor started to assemble Mazdas as nicely, which affected its product line-up and noticed the European Fords just like the Escort and Sierra changed by the Mazda-based Laser[110] and Telstar.[111] Ford purchased a forty five per cent stake in Samcor following the demise of apartheid in 1994, and this later turned, as soon as once more, a completely owned subsidiary, the Ford Motor Company of Southern Africa. Ford now sells an area sedan model of the Fiesta (additionally inbuilt India and Mexico), and the Focus. The Falcon mannequin from Australia was additionally offered in South Africa however was dropped in 2003 whereas the Mondeo, after briefly being assembled domestically, was dropped in 2005. The Mondeo was later reintroduced in 2015, badged because the Fusion however was dropped in 2017.[112]

Research

Ford Research and Innovation Center is the identify of the know-how analysis services of Ford Motor Company in

The Ford Research and Innovation Center in Palo Alto was first opened in 2012, and in January 2015, introduced plans to considerably broaden its operations.[113][114][115][116]

Former operations

East and Southeast Asia

Ford determined to close down their total operations in Indonesia, together with their vendor community by second half of 2016.[117][118]

Ford of Japan

Ford established a producing facility within the port metropolis of Yokohama in February 1925, the place Model T automobiles had been assembled utilizing imported knock-down kits.[119] The manufacturing facility subsequently produced 10,000 Model A’s as much as 1936. Production ceased in 1940 because of political tensions between Japan and the United States.

After World War II, Ford didn’t have a presence in Japan, because the Ford facility was appropriated by the Japanese Government till 1958 when property was returned as a possession of the Ford Motor Company and have become a analysis and growth location for Ford accomplice Mazda. In 1979, Ford acquired a 24.5% possession stake in Mazda, and in 1982, Ford and Mazda collectively established a gross sales channel to promote Ford merchandise in Japan, together with automobiles manufactured in North America, at a dealership referred to as Autorama (Japanese). The Autorama gross sales channel was renamed Ford Sales of Japan in 1997.[120]

Vehicles offered at Autorama places had been the North American assembled Ford Explorer, Probe (1989–1998), Mustang, Taurus (1989–1997), Thunderbird (1990–1993), Lincoln Continental, and Lincoln LS. Ford merchandise manufactured in Europe that had been offered in Japan had been the Ford Mondeo, Ka, Focus, Focus C-MAX, Fiesta, and the Galaxy. Mazda manufactured Ford automobiles in Japan and offered them as Fords on the Autorama places. They had been the Ford Telstar (Mazda Capella), Laser, Festiva, Festiva Mini Wagon, Ixion (Mazda Premacy), Freda (Mazda Bongo Friendee), Spectron (Mazda Bongo), and industrial vans J80 and the J100 (Mazda Bongo truck).

Ford elevated its shareholding in Mazda to 33.4% in 1996, however as of July 2016, it’s listed at 11%.[121] Ford did promote a small vary of automobiles in Japan; as of October 2010, the Ford Mustang, Escape, Explorer (and Explorer truck), Ford Kuga, Lincoln Navigator, Lincoln MKX, and extra not too long ago, the Ford Ecosport had been obtainable in Japan. As of February 2016, Ford now not maintains a regional workplace in Minato, Tokyo, Japan, and gross sales of recent vehicles in Japan have ended.[122][123]

Oceania

Ford FG X Falcon (Australia) (2014–2016; 2014 mannequin proven)

The Ford stamping plant in Geelong, Victoria, Australia. It closed in 2016.

In Australia and New Zealand, the favored Ford Falcon (1960–2016) had lengthy been thought-about the common household automotive and is significantly bigger than the Mondeo, Ford’s largest automotive offered in Europe. Between 1960 and 1972, the Falcon was primarily based on a U.S. mannequin of the identical identify, however since then has been fully designed and manufactured in Australia till 2016, sometimes being manufactured in New Zealand. Like its General Motors rival, the Holden Commodore, the Falcon used a rear-wheel-drive format. High-performance variants of the Falcon working domestically constructed engines produce as much as 362 hp (270 kW). A ute (quick for “utility”, recognized within the US as pickup truck) model can be obtainable with the identical vary of drivetrains. In addition, Ford Australia offered extremely tuned limited-production Falcon sedans and utes by way of its efficiency automotive division, Ford Performance Vehicles till it closed in 2014.

In Australia, the Commodore and Falcon had historically outsold all different vehicles and comprise over 20% of the brand new automotive market. In New Zealand, Ford was second in market share within the first eight months of 2006 with 14.4%.[124] More not too long ago, Ford has axed its Falcon-based LWB variant of its lineup– the Fairlane and LTD ranges. Ford discontinued the Fairlane in 2007 and LTD in 2008. Ford had introduced that their Geelong engine manufacturing plant could be shut down between 2013 and 2016. They had earlier introduced native manufacturing of the Focus small automotive ranging from 2011, however as an alternative determined to import the mannequin from Ford’s plant in Thailand.[125]

In Australia, the Laser was certainly one of Ford Australia’s most profitable fashions and was manufactured in Ford’s Homebush West plant from 1981 till the plant’s closure in September 1994. It outsold the Mazda 323, regardless of being virtually an identical to it as a result of the Laser was manufactured in Australia and Ford was perceived as an area model.[126] According to analysis carried out by Ford Australia in 1984, a 3rd of Laser consumers had been unaware that the Ford mannequin was primarily based on the Mazda 323.[127]

In New Zealand, the Ford Laser and Telstar had been assembled alongside the Mazda 323 and 626 till 1997, on the Vehicle Assemblers of New Zealand (VANZ) plant in Wiri, Auckland.[128] The Sierra wagon was additionally assembled in New Zealand, owing to the recognition of station wagons in that market.[129]

The scheduled closure of Ford’s Australian manufacturing base in 2016 was confirmed on May 23, 2013. Headquartered within the Victorian suburb of Broadmeadows, the corporate had registered losses price AU$600 million over the 5 years previous to the announcement. It was famous that the company fleet and authorities gross sales that account for two-thirds of huge, native automotive gross sales in Australia are inadequate to maintain Ford’s merchandise worthwhile and viable in Australia. The determination will have an effect on 1200 Ford employees—over 600 staff in Geelong and greater than 500 in Broadmeadows—who will lose their jobs by October 2016. The closure of Ford’s crops in Norlane Geelong and Broadmeadows Melbourne occurred on October 7, 2016.[130]

Products and providers

Automobiles

The 2017 mannequin 12 months F-150

Ford Motor Company sells a broad vary of cars below the Ford marque worldwide, and an extra vary of luxurious cars below the Lincoln marque within the United States. The firm has offered automobiles below a variety of different marques throughout its historical past. The Mercury model was launched by Ford in 1939, persevering with in manufacturing till 2011 when poor gross sales led to its discontinuation.[131] In 1958, Ford launched the Edsel model, however poor gross sales led to its discontinuation in 1960. In 1985, the Merkur model was launched within the United States to market merchandise produced by Ford of Europe; it was discontinued in 1989.

Ford acquired the British sports activities automotive maker Aston Martin in 1989, later promoting it on March 12, 2007,[132] though retaining an 8% stake.[133][134] Ford bought Volvo Cars of Sweden in 1999,[135] promoting it to Zhejiang Geely Holding Group in 2010. In November 2008, it lowered its 33.4% controlling curiosity in Mazda of Japan to a 13.4% non-controlling curiosity.[136]

On November 18, 2010, Ford lowered their stake additional to only 3%, citing the discount of possession would permit higher flexibility to pursue progress in rising markets. Ford and Mazda stay strategic companions by way of exchanges of technological data and joint ventures, together with an American three way partnership plant in Flat Rock, Michigan referred to as Auto Alliance.[137] Ford offered the United Kingdom-based Jaguar and Land Rover corporations and types to Tata Motors of India in March 2008. In 2015, Ford offered its remaining 3% stake in Mazda.[138]

On April 25, 2018, Ford introduced that it deliberate to part out all however certainly one of its North American car fashions (the Mustang would be the sole surviving mannequin) to focus totally on vans and SUVs. Ford had additionally deliberate to introduce an “Active” crossover model of the next-generation Focus, however canceled these plans because of tariff points between the United States and China.[139]

Current marques

Marque Country of origin Years used/owned Markets
Ford United States 1903–current Global
Lincoln United States 1922–current North America, Middle East, China, South Korea

Former marques

Marque Country of origin Years used/owned Markets
Mercury United States 1939–2011 North America, Middle East
Continental United States 1956–1960 North America
Edsel United States 1957–1960 North America
Merkur United States 1985–1989 North America
Jaguar United Kingdom 1989–2008 Global
Aston Martin United Kingdom 1989–2007 Global
Volvo Sweden 1999–2010 Global
Land Rover United Kingdom 2000–2008 Global
Mazda Japan 1974–2015 Global
FPV Australia 2002–2014 Australia
Troller Brazil 2007–2021 Brazil

Trucks

An commercial for the 1939 Ford V-8 pick-up truck

An commercial for the 1961 Ford H-Series truck

Ford has produced vans since 1908, starting with the Ford Model TT, adopted by the Model AA, and the Model BB. Countries the place Ford industrial automobiles are or had been previously produced embrace Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada (additionally badged as Mercury), France, Germany, India, Netherlands, Philippines, Spain (badged Ebro too), Turkey, UK (badged additionally Fordson and Thames), and the United States.

From the Nineteen Forties to the late Nineteen Seventies, Ford’s Ford F-Series was used as the bottom for mild vans for the North American market.

Most of those ventures at the moment are extinct. The European one which lasted longest was the lorries arm of Ford of Britain, which turned a part of the Iveco group in 1986. Ford had a minority share within the new firm and Iveco took over gross sales and manufacturing of the Ford Cargo vary.[140] Ford’s final important European truck fashions had been the Transcontinental and the Cargo.
At the tip of 1996, Ford offered the rights to its heavy vans division to the Freightliner Trucks division of Daimler AG, with Ford producing the Cargo, Louisville, and Aeromax, by way of the 1998 mannequin 12 months. During the 1998 mannequin 12 months, Freightliner started manufacturing of its personal variations of Ford-developed vans in St. Thomas, Ontario, launching the Sterling truck model.[141][142] Slotted between Freightliner and Western Star, Sterling vans had been produced by way of 2009.

Line of heavy vans made by Ford for the North American market:

  • Ford F-Series
    • “Super Duty/Extra Heavy Duty (1958-1962)
    • “Big Job” (1951-1957)
  • Ford N-Series (1963-1969)
  • Ford L-Series vans (1970-1998)
    • aka Ford “Louisville Line”
    • Ford Aeromax (1988-1998)
    • Ford Louisville (1996-1998)
    • Sterling (1998-2009)
  • Ford C-Series (1957-1990)
  • Ford Cargo/CF-Series (1986-1997)
  • Ford H-Series (1961-1966)
  • Ford W-Series (1966-1977)
  • Ford CL-Series (1978-1995)

For 1999, Ford briefly withdrew from manufacturing of medium-duty vans. For the 2001 mannequin 12 months, the corporate entered right into a three way partnership with Navistar International (the provider of diesel engines for 1-ton F-Series vans), named Blue Diamond Truck Company LLC.[143] As a part of the three way partnership, sharing a typical truck chassis, the 2 corporations would produce medium-duty (Class 6–7) vans in a Navistar facility in Mexico, with every producer supplying its personal powertrain and bodywork, with the Ford F-650/F-750 Super Duty and International 4000/DuraStar sharing an meeting line. In 2006, the three way partnership debuted the Ford LCF/International CityStar.[144] Using a modified F-Series chassis adopted to suit a Mazda Titan cab, the LCF was a low-cab ahead truck that was offered by way of 2009.[145]

In Europe, Ford manufactures the Ford Transit jumbo van which is classed as a Large Goods Vehicle and has a payload of as much as 2,265 kg, there are alternatives of a panel van, pickup or chassis cab. The Ford Transit can be obtainable as a lightweight van referred to as the Ford Transit Connect and the Ford Ranger pickup is obtainable.[146]

Buses

Ford manufactured full buses within the firm’s early historical past, however at present the position of the corporate has modified to that of a second stage producer. In North America, the E-Series remains to be used as a chassis for small faculty buses and the F-650 is utilized in industrial bus markets. In the Eighties and Nineteen Nineties, the medium-duty B700 was a preferred chassis utilized by faculty bus physique producers together with Thomas Built, Ward, and Blue Bird, however Ford misplaced its market share because of trade contraction and agreements between physique producers. Older bus fashions included:

Prior to 1936, Ford buses had been primarily based on truck our bodies:

  • Model B – Nineteen Thirties
  • Model T – Twenties
  • F-105 faculty bus

In 1936, Ford launched the Ford Transit Bus, a sequence of small transit buses with our bodies constructed by a second celebration. Originally a front-engine design, it was modified to a rear-engine design in 1939. About 1,000 to 1,200 of the unique design had been constructed, and round 12,500 of the rear-engine design, which was in manufacturing till 1947[147] (rebranded because the Universal Bus in 1946).

Rear-engine Transit Bus chassis mannequin numbers:[148]

  • 09-B/19-B City transit bus – 1939–1941
  • 19-B/29-B City transit bus – 1941–1942
  • 49-B/79-B City transit bus – 1944–1947
  • 69-B City transit bus – 1946–1947
  • 29-B City transit bus – 1946–1947
  • 72-T transit bus – 1944–1945

After 1946 the Transit City bus was offered because the Universal Bus with the roof modified from material/wooden to all-metal:

  • 79-B Universal transit bus – 1946–1947

Succeeding the Ford Transit Bus was the Ford 8M buses:

  • 8MB transit bus – with Wayne Works 1948–?

Following World War II and from the Fifties onwards, Ford misplaced out to General Motors.[148] This led to the tip of transit buses for Ford in North America.

  • B500 or B-series – 1950–Nineteen Nineties primarily based on Ford F-series truck chassis utilized by faculty bus physique producers

In Europe, Ford manufactures the Ford Transit Minibus which is classed in Europe as a Passenger Carrying Vehicle and there are alternatives of 12-, 15-, or 17-seaters.[149] In the previous, European fashions included:

  • EM
  • N-138
  • D sequence buses (Australia)

Tractors

The “Henry Ford and Son Company” started making Fordson tractors in Henry’s hometown of Springwells (later a part of Dearborn), Michigan from 1907 to 1928, from 1919 to 1932, at Cork, Ireland, and 1933–1964 at Dagenham, England, later transferred to Basildon. They had been additionally produced in Leningrad starting in 1924.

Ford reentered the tractor market in 1939 with the Ford N-series tractors. The Ford N8, launched in 1947, turned the preferred tractor of all time in North America. Production of the N line of fashions led to 1952.

The Ford NAA tractor was launched as a wholly new mannequin in 1953. It was a alternative for the Ford N-Series tractors. Larger than the 8N, with a four-cylinder engine, and streamlined styling.

In 1986, Ford expanded its tractor enterprise when it bought the Sperry-New Holland skid-steer loader and hay baler, hay instruments and implement firm from Sperry Corporation and shaped Ford-New Holland which purchased out Versatile tractors in 1988. This firm was purchased by Fiat in 1993 and the identify modified from Ford New Holland to New Holland. New Holland is now a part of CNH Global.

Financial providers

Ford presents automotive finance by way of Ford Motor Credit Company.

Automotive parts

Ford’s FoMoCo components division sells aftermarket components below the Motorcraft model identify. It has spun off its components division below the identify Visteon.

Motorsport

Along with Shelby and Chevrolet, Ford is certainly one of solely three American constructors to win titles on the worldwide scene on the FIA World Championships. As a constructor, Ford received the World Sportscar Championship thrice in 1966, 1967, and 1968, and the World Rally Championship thrice in 1979, 2006 and 2007.

Open-wheel automotive racing

IndyCar

Arie Luyendyk’s record-setting Ford Cosworth-powered IndyCar from 1996

IndyCars with Ford engines first competed in 1935 utilizing a production-based Ford V8 within the Miller-Ford racer.[150][151] A pushrod Ford V8 raced with Lotus in 1963, and Ford’s first Indy win was in 1965 with a DOHC V8.[152][153] Ford motors, together with the Ford-sponsored DFX engine developed by Cosworth, have received the Indianapolis 500 eighteen instances.[154] On May 12, 1996, Arie Luyendyk, whereas driving an IndyCar powered by a Ford Cosworth XB engine, broke the Indianapolis 500 data for quickest qualification lap (237.498 mph (382.216 km/h)) and quickest qualification four-lap common (236.986 mph (381.392 km/h)).[155][156] These velocity data nonetheless stand as of 2018.[157]

Formula Ford

Formula Ford, conceived within the UK in 1966, is an entry-level kind of formulation racing with wingless single-seater vehicles. Many of at present’s formulation racing drivers began their automotive racing careers on this class.

Formula One

Ford was closely concerned in Formula One for a few years and provided engines to numerous groups from 1967 till 2004. These engines had been designed and manufactured by Cosworth, the racing division that was owned by Ford from 1998 to 2004. Ford-badged engines received 176 Grands Prix between 1967 and 2003 for groups resembling Team Lotus and McLaren. Ford entered Formula One as a constructor in 2000 below the Jaguar Racing identify, after shopping for the Stewart Grand Prix staff which had been its main ‘works’ staff within the sequence since 1997. Jaguar achieved little success in Formula One, and after a turbulent 5 seasons, Ford withdrew from the class after the 2004 season, promoting each Jaguar Racing (which turned Red Bull Racing) and Cosworth (to Gerald Forsythe and Kevin Kalkhoven).[158]

Stock automotive racing

Ford is certainly one of three producers in NASCAR’s three main sequence: the Cup Series, Xfinity Series, and Truck Series. Major groups embrace Roush Fenway Racing, Team Penske, Stewart-Haas Racing, and Wood Brothers Racing. Ford is represented by the Mustang GT within the Cup Series, and the Xfinity Series and by the F-150 within the Truck Series. Some of essentially the most profitable NASCAR Fords had been the aerodynamic fastback Ford Torino, Ford Torino Talladega, Mercury Cyclone Spoiler II, and Mercury Montegos, and the aero-era Ford Thunderbirds. The Ford nameplate has received eight producer’s championships in Sprint Cup whereas Mercury has received one. In the Sprint Cup Series, Ford earned its 1,000th victory within the 2013 Quicken Loans 400.[159] The Ford Fusion can be used within the ARCA Racing Series. Ford had final received a drivers’ championship within the Cup Series with Joey Logano in 2018.

Rally

Ford has a protracted historical past in rallying and has been lively within the World Rally Championship for the reason that starting of the world championship, the 1973 season. Ford took the 1979 producers’ title with Hannu Mikkola, Björn Waldegård, and Ari Vatanen driving the Ford Escort RS1800. In the Group B period, Ford achieved success with Ford RS200. Since the 1999 season, Ford has used numerous variations of the Ford Focus WRC to a lot success. In the 2006 season, BP-Ford World Rally Team secured Ford its second producers’ title, with the Focus RS WRC 06 constructed by M-Sport and pushed by “Flying Finns” Marcus Grönholm and Mikko Hirvonen.[160] Continuing with Grönholm and Hirvonen, Ford efficiently defended the producers’ world championship within the 2007 season. Ford is the one producer to attain within the factors for 92 consecutive races; for the reason that 2002 season opener Monte Carlo Rally.[161]

Rallycross

Ford has competed in rallycross with its Ford Fiesta and Ford Focus. Tanner Foust received the Global RallyCross Championship in 2011 and 2012 and was runner-up within the FIA European Rallycross Championship in 2011 and 2012. Toomas Heikkinen received the Global RallyCross Championship title in 2013 and Joni Wiman received it in 2014. Other notable Ford drivers embrace Marcus Grönholm, Ken Block, and Brian Deegan.

Sports vehicles

Ford sports activities vehicles have been seen on the earth of sports activities automotive racing since 1964. Most notably the GT40 received the 24 Hours of Le Mans 4 instances within the Sixties and is the one American automotive to ever win total at this prestigious occasion. Ford additionally received the 1968 International Championship for Makes with the GT40. Swiss staff Matech GT Racing, in collaboration with Ford Racing, opened a brand new chapter with the Ford GT, successful the Teams title within the 2008 FIA GT3 European Championship.

The Ford Mustang has arguably been Ford’s most profitable sports activities automotive. Jerry Titus received the 1965 SCCA Pro B National Championship with a Mustang and the mannequin went on to earn Ford the SCCA Trans-Am Championship title in each 1966 and 1967. Ford received the Trans-Am Championship once more in 1970 with Parnelli Jones and George Follmer driving Boss 302 Mustangs for Bud Moore Engineering. Ford took the 1985 and 1986 IMSA GTO Championship with Mustangs pushed by John Jones and Scott Pruett earlier than returning to Trans-Am glory with a championship in 1989 with Dorsey Schroeder. Ford dominated Trans-Am within the Nineteen Nineties with Tommy Kendall successful championships in 1993, 1995, 1996, and 1997 with Paul Gentilozzi including yet one more title in 1999. In 2005 the Ford Mustang FR500C took the championship within the Rolex Koni Challenge Series in its first 12 months on the circuit. In 2007, Ford added a victory within the GT4 European Championship. 2008 was the primary 12 months of the Mustang Challenge for the Miller Cup, a sequence that pits a full subject of an identical factory-built Ford Mustang race vehicles towards one another. Also, in 2008, Ford received the producers championship within the Koni Challenge Series and HyperSport drivers Joe Foster and Steve Maxwell received the drivers title in a Mustang GT.

Ford and Michelin teamed as much as present custom-engineered tires for the Ford Performance automobile lineup. Ford Performance director Dave Pericak mentioned: “That confidence extends from our upcoming racing effort at Le Mans in 2016 with the all-new Ford GT, to the Ford Performance vehicle lineup, including the Shelby GT350 and F-150 Raptor”.[162]

Touring vehicles

Ford has campaigned touring vehicles such because the Focus, Falcon, and Contour/Mondeo and the Sierra Cosworth in many alternative sequence all through the years. Notably, Mondeo drivers completed 1,2,3 within the 2000 British Touring Car Championship and Falcon drivers positioned 1,2,3 within the 2005 V8 Supercar Championship Series.

Drag racing

In drag racing, John Force Racing drivers John Force, Tony Pedregon, and Robert Hight have piloted Ford Mustang Funny Cars to a number of NHRA titles in current seasons. Teammates Tim Wilkerson and Bob Tasca III additionally drive Mustangs in Funny Car.

Drifting

Ford has branched out into drifting with the introduction of the brand new mannequin Mustang. Most noticeable is the Turquoise and Blue Falken Tires Mustang pushed by Vaughn Gittin, Jr., (A.Ok.A. “JR”) that produces 750 RWHP (Rear Wheel Horsepower).

Environmental initiatives

Compressed pure gasoline

The various fossil gas automobiles, resembling some variations of the Crown Victoria particularly in fleet and taxi service, function on compressed pure gasoline—or CNG. Some CNG automobiles have twin gas tanks – one for gasoline, the opposite for CNG – the identical engine can function on both gas by way of a selector change.

Flexible gas automobiles

Flexible gas automobiles are designed to function easily utilizing a variety of obtainable ethanol gas mixtures—from pure gasoline to bioethanol-gasoline blends resembling E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) or E100 (neat hydrous ethanol) in Brazil. Part of the problem of profitable advertising and marketing various and versatile gas automobiles within the U.S. is the final lack of firm of ample fueling stations, which might be important for these automobiles to be enticing to a variety of customers. Significant efforts to ramp up manufacturing and distribution of E85 fuels are underway and increasing.[163] Current Ford E100 Flex offered within the Brazilian market are the Courier, Ford EcoSport, Ford Fiesta, Ford Focus, and Ford Ka.

Electric drive automobiles

Hybrid electrical automobiles

In 2004, Ford and Toyota agreed a patent sharing accord which granted Ford entry to sure hybrid know-how patented by Toyota; in alternate, Ford licensed Toyota a few of its personal patents.[164][165][166] In 2004, Ford launched the Escape Hybrid. With this automobile, Ford was third to the automotive market with a hybrid electrical automobile and the primary hybrid electrical SUV to market. This was additionally the primary hybrid electrical automobile with a versatile gas functionality to run on E85.[167] The Escape’s platform mate Mercury Mariner was additionally obtainable with the hybrid-electric system within the 2006 mannequin 12 months—a full 12 months forward of schedule. The comparable Mazda Tribute can even obtain a hybrid-electric powertrain choice, together with many different automobiles within the Ford automobile line.

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In 2005, Ford introduced a purpose to make 250,000 hybrids a 12 months by 2010, however by mid-2006 introduced that it might not meet that purpose, because of excessively excessive prices and the shortage of ample provides of the hybrid-electric batteries and drivetrain system parts.[168] Instead, Ford has dedicated to accelerating growth of next-generation hybrid-electric energy crops in Britain, in collaboration with Volvo. This engineering research is anticipated to yield greater than 100 new hybrid-electric automobile fashions and derivatives.

In September 2007, Ford introduced a partnership with Southern California Edison (SCE) to look at how plug-in hybrids will work with {the electrical} grid. Under the multimillion-dollar, multi-year mission, Ford will convert an illustration fleet of Ford Escape Hybrids into plug-in hybrids, and SCE will consider how the automobiles may work together with the house and the utility’s electrical grid. Some of the automobiles will likely be evaluated “in typical customer settings”, in response to Ford.[28][29]

On June 12, 2008, USDOE expanded its personal fleet of different gas and superior know-how automobiles with the addition of a Ford Escape Plug-In Hybrid Flex-Fuel Vehicle. The automobile is provided with a 10-kilowatt (13 hp) lithium-ion battery provided by Johnson Controls-Saft that shops sufficient electrical vitality to drive as much as 30 miles (48 km) at speeds of as much as 40 mph (64 km/h).[169] In March 2009, Ford launched hybrid variations of the Ford Fusion Hybrid and the Mercury Milan Hybrid within the United States, each as 2010 fashions.[170]

As of November 2014, Ford has produced for retail gross sales the next hybrid electrical automobiles: Ford Escape Hybrid (2004–2012), Mercury Mariner Hybrid (2005–2010), Mercury Milan Hybrid (2009–2010), Ford Fusion Hybrid (2009–current), Lincoln MKZ Hybrid (2010–current), Ford C-Max Hybrid (2012–current), and Ford Mondeo Hybrid (2014–current). By June 2012, Ford had offered 200,000 full hybrids within the US since 2004,[171] and, as of September 2014, the carmaker has offered over 344 thousand hybrids within the United States.[171][172][173][174] The high promoting hybrids within the U.S. market are the Fusion Hybrid with 127,572 items, adopted by Escape Hybrid with 117,997 items, and the C-Max Hybrid with 54,236.[172][173][174][175][176] As of November 2014, Ford is the world’s second largest producer of hybrids after Toyota Motor Corporation, with 400,000 hybrid electrical automobiles produced since their introduction in 2004.[177]

Plug-in electrical automobiles

As of October 2014, Ford has produced the next plug-in electrical automobiles: the all-electric Ford Ranger EV (1997–2002), Ford TH!NK (1999–2003), Transit Connect (2010–2012), and Ford Focus Electric (December 2011–current); and the plug-in hybrids C-MAX Energi (October 2012–current) and the Fusion Energi (February 2013–current), offered below the Mondeo nameplate in Europe.[178][179] Since the launch of the Focus Electric in 2011, mixed gross sales of all Ford plug-in electrical fashions amounted to only over 56,000 by way of October 2015.[180]

Bill Ford was one of many first high trade executives to make common use of a battery electrical automobile, a Ford Ranger EV, whereas the corporate contracted with the United States Postal Service to ship electrical postal vans primarily based on the Ranger EV platform. Ford discontinued a line of electrical Ranger pickup vans and ordered them destroyed, although it reversed in January 2005, after environmentalist protest.[181] The all-electric pickup truck leased 205 items to people and 1,500 items to fleets within the U.S. from 1998 to 2002.[182][183]

From 2009 to 2011, Ford provided the Ford TH!NK automotive. Ford ended manufacturing and ordered all of the vehicles repossessed and destroyed, whilst lots of the individuals leasing them begged to have the ability to purchase the vehicles from Ford. After an outcry from the lessees and activists within the US and Norway, Ford returned the vehicles to Norway on the market.[184] 440 items had been leased within the U.S. from 1999 till 2003.[183]

In 2017, CEO of Ford Mark Fields introduced that the corporate will make investments $4.5 billion in additional growth of plug-in electrical automobiles by 2020.[185]

The Azure Transit Connect Electric was an all-electric van developed as a collaboration between Azure Dynamics and Ford Motor Company, however Azure was the official producer of report.[186] The Transit Connect Electric had an official US Environmental Protection Agency all-electric vary of 56 mi (90 km).[187] The EPA rated the mixed metropolis/freeway gas economic system at 62 miles per gallon gasoline equal (3.8 L/100 km equal).[187] Deliveries for fleet clients within the U.S. and Canada started in December 2010.[188] Production of the electrical van was stopped in March 2012 because of Azure’s chapter safety submitting. Ford continues to supply servicing.[189] Around 500 items had been offered earlier than Azure stopped manufacturing.[190]

The Ford Focus Electric relies on the subsequent technology Focus inside combustion automobile, transformed to an all-electric propulsion system as a manufacturing electrical automotive by Magna International, and retail gross sales started within the U.S. in December 2011.[191][192] The Focus Electric has an EPA rated vary of 76 mi (122 km) and a mixed metropolis/freeway gas economic system of 105 miles per gallon gasoline equal (2.2 L/100 km).[193] Available additionally in Canada and several other European nations, 3,965 items have been offered within the U.S. by way of September 2014.[172][173][174][194]

The Ford C-Max Energi is a plug-in hybrid launched within the U.S. in October 2012. The C-Max Energi has an EPA rated all-electric vary of 20 mi (32 km) and a mixed metropolis/freeway gas economic system in all-electric mode at 88 MPG-e (2.7 L/100 km).[195] U.S. gross sales totaled 33,509 items
by way of December 2016.[172][173][196][197][198] Deliveries of the Ford Fusion Energi started within the United States in February 2013.[199][200] The Fusion Energi has an all-electric vary of 20 mi (32 km) and an equal gas economic system EPA score of 88 MPG-e (2.7 L/100 km).[195] As of December 2016, a complete of 43,327 items have been delivered within the U.S. since its inception.[173][196][197][198]

Both Energi fashions share the identical powertrain know-how and have the identical EPA mixed metropolis/freeway gas economic system in hybrid operation of 38 mpg‑US (6.2 L/100 km; 46 mpg‑imp).[195]
When requested a few battery-electric automobile with a 200-mile (320 km) vary, Fields mentioned in April 2016 “Clearly that’s something we’re developing for”. Ford has a pending trademark utility on the “Model E” identify,[201] stopping the Tesla Model 3 in utilizing the identify.[202]

In October 2017, Ford introduced its Team Edison battery-electric automobile group to steer the corporate’s renewed efforts into the EV market, wherein it presently presents solely the Focus subcompact and has plans for a small 300-mile SUV by 2020.[203] The new staff will likely be headquartered in Detroit and have places of work in Europe and Asia.[204]

Hydrogen

Ford additionally continues to check gas cell-powered electrical powertrains and has demonstrated hydrogen-fueled inside combustion engine applied sciences, in addition to growing the next-generation hybrid-electric methods. Compared with standard automobiles, hybrid automobiles and/or gas cell automobiles lower air air pollution emissions in addition to sound ranges, with favorable impacts upon respiratory well being and reduce of noise well being results.

Ford has launched the manufacturing of hydrogen-powered shuttle buses, utilizing hydrogen as an alternative of gasoline in a typical inside combustion engine, to be used at airports and conference facilities.[205] At the 2006 Greater Los Angeles Auto Show, Ford showcased a hydrogen gas cell model of its Explorer SUV. The Fuel cell Explorer has a mixed output of 174 hp (130 kW). It has a big hydrogen storage tank which is located within the middle of the automotive taking the unique place of the standard mannequin’s automated transmission. The centered place of the tank assists the automobile attain a notable vary of 350 miles (563 km), the farthest for a gas cell automobile to this point. The gas cell Explorer the primary in a sequence of prototypes partly funded by the United States Department of Energy to broaden efforts to find out the feasibility of hydrogen-powered automobiles. The gas cell Explorer is certainly one of a number of automobiles with inexperienced know-how being featured on the L.A. present, together with the 2008 Ford Escape Hybrid, PZEV emissions compliant Fusion and Focus fashions and a 2008 Ford F-Series Super Duty outfitted with Ford’s clear diesel know-how.

Increased gas effectivity

Ford Motor Company introduced it’ll speed up its plans to provide extra fuel-efficient vehicles, altering each its North American manufacturing plans and its lineup of automobiles obtainable within the United States. In phrases of North American manufacturing, the corporate will convert three present truck and sport utility automobile (SUV) crops for small automotive manufacturing, with the primary conversion at its Michigan Truck Plant. In addition, Ford’s meeting crops close to Mexico City, Mexico, and in Louisville, Kentucky, will convert from pickups and SUVs to small vehicles, together with the Ford Fiesta, by 2011. Ford can even introduce to North America six of its European small automobiles, together with two variations of the Ford Fiesta, by the tip of 2012.

Ford of Europe developed the ECOnetic programme to handle the market and legislative want for increased gas effectivity and decrease CO2 emissions. As against the hybrid engine know-how utilized in competitor merchandise such because the Toyota Prius, ECOnetic improves present know-how. Using decrease consuming Duratorq TDCi diesel engines, and primarily based on a mixture of improved aerodynamics, decrease resistance, and improved effectivity, the Ford Fiesta is presently the bottom emitting mass-produced automotive in Europe[206] whereas the 2012 Ford Focus ECOnetic could have higher gas consumption than the Prius or the Volkswagen Golf BlueMovement.[207] ECOnetic will not be presently deliberate to be offered in North American because of present perceived decrease shopper demand.[208]

Ford has challenged University groups to create a automobile that’s easy, sturdy, light-weight, and are available geared up with a base goal value of solely $7,000. The students from Aachen University created the “2015 Ford Model T”.[209][210]

In 2000, below the management of the present Ford chairman, William Clay Ford, the corporate introduced[211] a deliberate 25 p.c enchancment within the common mileage of its SUVs – to be accomplished by the 2005 calendar 12 months. In 2003, Ford introduced that aggressive market situations and technological and value challenges would forestall the corporate from reaching this purpose.[212]

For the 2007 mannequin 12 months, Ford had 13 U.S. fashions that obtain 30 miles per gallon or higher (primarily based on the freeway gas economic system estimates of the EPA) and several other of Ford’s automobiles had been acknowledged within the EPA and Department of Energy Fuel Economy Guide for best-in-class gas economic system. Ford claimed to have eradicated practically three million kilos of smog-forming emissions from their U.S. vehicles and light-weight vans over the 2004 to 2006 mannequin years.[213] However, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has linked Ford to 54 Superfund poisonous waste websites, twelve of which have been cleaned up and deleted from the listing.[214]

PC energy administration

In March 2010, Ford introduced its PC energy administration system which it developed with NightWatchman software program from 1E. The firm is anticipated to avoid wasting $1.2m on energy price and scale back carbon footprint by an estimated 16,000 to 25,000 metric tons yearly when the system is totally carried out.

According to firm, discount in carbon footprint and energy price will likely be achieved by growing ‘Power Profiles’ for each PC within the firm.[215]

Ford sponsors quite a few occasions and sports activities services across the US, most notably the Ford Center in downtown Evansville, Indiana, and Ford Field in downtown Detroit.[216]

Ford has additionally been a serious sponsor of the UEFA Champions League for over twenty years and can be a longtime sponsor of the Sky media channel’s protection of Premier League soccer. Senior Ford marketer Mark Jones defined in May 2013 the method behind the 2 sponsorship offers:

We begin with a clean piece of paper and work out if the sponsorship nonetheless works for us and ask does it meet our aims? We wish to discover a second in time when individuals come collectively and have a collective expertise and we obtain this by way of the sponsorships.[217]

Sales numbers

Calendar Year US gross sales Market share

of US gross sales[218]

1997 3,877,458[219] 25.02%
1998 3,922,604[220] 24.52%
1999 4,163,369[221] 23.91%
2000 4,202,820 23.61%
2001 3,971,364 22.69%
2002 3,623,709[222] 21.19%
2003 3,483,719 20.53%
2004 3,331,676[223] 19.26%
2005 3,153,875 18.08%
2006 2,901,090[224] 17.02%
2007 2,507,366 15.23%
2008 1,988,376[225] 14.74%
2009 1,620,888[226] 15.29%
2010 1,935,462[227] 16.44%
2011 2,143,101[228] 16.42%
2012 2,250,165[229] 15.22%
2013 2,493,918[230] 15.70%
2014 2,480,942[231] 14.72%
2015 2,613,162[232] 14.64%
2016 2,614,697[233][234] 14.63%
2017 2,586,715[235] 14.74%
2018 2,497,318[235] 14.13%
2019 2,422,698[236] 13.8%
2020 2,044,744[237] 13.7%

See additionally

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Further studying

  • Bak, Richard. Henry and Edsel: The Creation of the Ford Empire (2003)
  • Bardou; Jean-Pierre, Jean-Jacques Chanaron, Patrick Fridenson, and James M. Laux. The Automobile Revolution: The Impact of an Industry University of North Carolina Press, 1982
  • Batchelor, Ray. Henry Ford: Mass Production, Modernism and Design Manchester U. Press, 1994
  • Bonin, Huber et al. Ford, 1902–2003: The European History 2 vol Paris 2003. ISBN 2-914369-06-9 scholarly essays in English on Ford operations in Europe; reviewed in Len Holden, Len. “Fording the Atlantic: Ford and Fordism in Europe” in Business History Volume 47, #January 1, 2005 pp 122–127
  • Bowman, Timothy J. Spirituality at Work: An Exploratory Sociological Investigation of the Ford Motor Company. London School of Economics and Political Science, 2004
  • Brinkley, Douglas G. Wheels for the World: Henry Ford, His Company, and a Century of Progress (2003)
  • Brinkley, Douglas. “Prime Mover”. American Heritage 2003 54(3): 44–53. on Model T
  • Bryan, Ford R. Henry’s Lieutenants, 1993; ISBN 0-8143-2428-2
  • Bucci, Federico. Albert Kahn: Architect of Ford Princeton Architectural Press, 1993
  • Cabadas, Joseph P. River Rouge: Ford’s Industrial Colossus (2004), closely illustrated
  • Dempsey, Mary A. “Fordlandia’ Michigan History 1994 78(4): 24–33. Ford’s rubber plantation in Brazil
  • Flink, James. America Adopts the Automobile, 1895–1910 MIT Press, 1970
  • Foster, Mark S. “The Model T, The Hard Sell, and Los Angeles Urban Growth: The Decentralization of Los Angeles During the 1920s.” Pacific Historical Review 44.4 (November 1975): 459–84
  • Halberstam, David. The Reckoning (1986) detailed reporting on decline of the auto trade. on-line; additionally
  • Iacocca, Lee and William Novak. Iacocca: An Autobiography (1984)
  • Jacobson, D. S. “The Political Economy of Industrial Location: the Ford Motor Company at Cork 1912–26.” Irish Economic and Social History [Ireland] 1977 4: 36–55. Ford and Irish politics
  • Lacey, Robert “Ford: The Men and the Machine” (Heinnemann, London) 0 414 401027 (1986)
  • Levinson, William A. Henry Ford’s Lean Vision: Enduring Principles from the First Ford Motor Plant, 2002; ISBN 1-56327-260-1
  • Kuhn, Arthur J. GM Passes Ford, 1918–1938: Designing the General Motors Performance-Control System. Pennsylvania State University Press, 1986
  • Magee, David. Ford Tough: Bill Ford and the Battle to Rebuild America’s Automaker (2004)
  • Maxton, Graeme P. and John Wormald, Time for a Model Change: Re-engineering the Global Automotive Industry (2004)
  • May, George S. A Most Unique Machine: The Michigan Origins of the American Automobile Industry Eerdman’s, 1975
  • Maynard, Micheline. The End of Detroit: How the Big Three Lost Their Grip on the American Car Market (2003)
  • McIntyre, Stephen L. “The Failure of Fordism: Reform of the Automobile Repair Industry, 1913–1940: Technology and Culture 2000 41(2): 269–299. restore outlets rejected flat charges
  • Nevins, Allan. Ford: the Times, the Man, the Company (vol 1 1954) on-line
  • Nevins, Allan, and Frank Hill. Ford: Expansion and Challenge 1915-1933 (vol 2, 1957) on-line
  • Nevins, Allan. Ford: Decline and rebirth, 1933-1962 (vol 3, 1963) on-line
  • Rubenstein, James M. The Changing U.S. Auto Industry: A Geographical Analysis Routledge, 1992
  • Shiomi, Haruhito and Kazuo Wada. Fordism Transformed: The Development of Production Methods within the Automobile Industry Oxford University Press, 1995
  • Sorensen, Charles E. (1956), My Forty Years with Ford, with Williamson, Samuel T., New York, New York, USA: Norton, LCCN 56010854. Various republications, together with ISBN 9780814332795.
  • Studer-Noguez; Isabel. Ford and the Global Strategies of Multinationals: The North American Auto Industry Routledge, 2002
  • Tedlow, Richard S. “The Struggle for Dominance in the Automobile Market: the Early Years of Ford and General Motors” Business and Economic History 1988 17: 49–62. Ford confused low value primarily based on environment friendly factories however GM did higher in oligopolistic competitors by together with funding in manufacturing, advertising and marketing, and administration
  • Thomas, Robert Paul. “The Automobile Industry and its Tycoon” Explorations in Entrepreneurial History 1969 6(2): 139–157. argues Ford did NOT have a lot affect on US trade
  • Watts, Steven. The People’s Tycoon: Henry Ford and the American Century (2005)
  • Wik, Reynold M. Henry Ford and Grass-Roots America. University of Michigan Press, 1972. impression on farmers
  • Wilkins, Mira and Frank Ernest Hill, American Business Abroad: Ford on Six Continents Wayne State University Press, 1964
  • Williams, Karel, Colin Haslam and John Williams, “Ford versus ‘Fordism’: The Beginning of Mass Production?” Work, Employment & Society, Vol. 6, No. 4, 517–555 (1992), stress on Ford’s flexibility and dedication to steady enhancements.

External hyperlinks