Dutch/Lesson 4 - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Dutch/Lesson 4 – Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Beginner degree: cycle 1

Les 4 ~ Lesson 4

Studeren ~ Student Life

Indefinite and damaging articles
Grammar: More pronouns
Grammar: Plural of nouns
Orthography: The Dutch spelling rule

Gesprek 4-1[edit]

Peter is een student medicijnen. Hij gaat naar de universiteit.
Hij wil Elly uitnodigen voor een etentje, maar hij heeft geen geld.
Hij kan er niks aan doen; studeren is duur.
Pa, ik heb geld nodig!
Ja, sorry hoor, maar ik heb echt stoelen en een tafel nodig!
Ja, ja, tafels en stoelen zeker. Feesten zul je bedoelen.
He Pa, toe nou… Die heb ik echt nodig, hoor.
Nou, vooruit dan maar weer…

Translation • Lesson 4 • gesprek

Peter is een student medicijnen. Hij gaat naar de universiteit. Hij wil Elly uitnodigen voor een etentje, maar hij heeft geen geld. Hij kan er niks aan doen; studeren is duur.
Peter is a medical student. He goes to school. He desires to ask Elly for a dinner date, however doesn’t have the cash. He can’t assist it; learning is dear.
Pa, ik heb geld nodig!
Dad, I would like cash!
Ja, sorry hoor, maar ik heb echt stoelen en een tafel nodig!
Yes, effectively sorry, however I really want chairs and a desk!
Ja,ja, tafels en stoelen zeker!! Feesten zul je bedoelen.
Tables and chairs, yeah proper. Partying, extra doubtless.
He Pa, toe nou… Die heb ik echt nodig, hoor.
Ow, Dad, come on… I really want these, man.
Nou, vooruit dan maar weer…
All proper, there we go once more…

YOUR TURN – UW BEURT!! • Lesson 4 • waar of niet waar

Is dit waar of niet waar:

  1. Peter studeert theologie
  2. Peter heeft geld nodig voor stoelen en tafels
  3. Zijn Pa geeft hem geld
  4. Pa nodigt Elly uit voor een etentje
  5. Peter studeert aan een universiteit

SOLUTION • Dutch/Lesson 4 • waar of niet waar

  1. Peter studeert theologie – niet waar: medicijnen
  2. Peter heeft geld nodig voor stoelen en tafels – niet waar : hij wil Elly uitnodigen voor een etentje
  3. Zijn Pa geeft hem geld – waar
  4. Pa nodigt Elly uit voor een etentje – niet waar
  5. Peter studeert aan een universiteit – waar

Fill within the clean 4-1-F[edit]

  • Peter zegt dat hij die stoelen en tafels echt ____ heeft.
  • Peter wil Elly ______ voor een etentje.
  • Zijn vader zegt: ______ zul je bedoelen!
  • Zijn zoon _________ aan de universiteit.

Grammatica 4-1 ~ The indefinite articles een en geen[edit]

chairs and a deskstoelen en een tafel
has no cashheeft geen geld

In the earlier lesson you have been launched to the particular articles—’the’ in English and het or de in Dutch. Indefinite articles precede nouns in the identical manner that particular articles do, however convey a normal or indefinite sense. These are ‘a’ or ‘an’ in English. Thus, ‘the e-book’ or het boek refers to a particular or particular e-book, whereas ‘a e-book’ or een boek is indefinite about which e-book is referred to. If your mom tongue doesn’t have articles (resembling Russian, Polish and so forth.) do that.

Dutch indefinite articles solely are available one kind (een), so they do not show gender.

The use of particular and indefinite articles is just about the identical as in English. The few deviations are finest realized when listening to the language or talking it.

een de masculine/female de tafel – een tafel (the desk – a desk)
een het neuter het raam – een raam (the window – a window)

Please observe (see additionally earlier lesson) that the indefinite article has the identical kind because the numeral one (één). One may argue that one is a clitic type of the opposite. To denote the distinction, one may place accents on the numeral. Also, there’s a distinction in pronunciation. The numeral één (one) is pronounced /e:n/, the article een (a) with a a lot weaker /ən/. Occasionally Dutch has one and English the opposite:

op een middag – one afternoon

Notice that one is used right here within the which means of a sure, not say in distinction to 2 or three.

There is an inflected kind ene that’s used independently:

Occasionally Dutch has one, English the opposite.
Soms heeft Nederlands het ene, Engels het andere


In English a damaging of an indefinite article is solely shaped by including not:

it is a automotive
that is not a automotive

Alternatively one can drop the article and say:

that is no automotive.

In Dutch there’s a particular damaging of een:

dit is een auto
dit is geen auto.

Geen is used each with singular and with plural indefinite nouns

dat zijn eenden — these are geese
dat zijn geen eenden — these should not geese

Relation to niet[edit]

The mixture niet + een is just utilized in contrasting issues:

dit is niet een fuut maar een eend.
that is not a grebe however a duck.

With particular nouns negation entails including niet, normally at finish:

dat is de auto
dat is de auto niet
Notice that geen is an article[1]. It negates the noun.
By distinction niet is an adverb. It negates the verb.

Notice additionally that Dutch doesn’t use the auxiliary verb to do for negations:

Hij zag de auto niet – he didn’t see the automotive
Hij zag geen eenden – he didn’t see any geese

Relation to wel[edit]

When a damaging is negated Dutch makes use of the adverb wel to precise that. English has to make use of a building involving the verb to do:

Heb je geen geld? — Jawel, ik heb wel geld.
Don’t you could have cash — Yes, I do have cash

This adverb can be used for contrasting:

Hij heeft geen auto, maar wel een motor.
He has no automotive, however he does have a motorcycle.

Notice that the second a part of the Dutch sentence doesn’t also have a verb. Dutch is sort of an ‘adverbial’ language. If the adverb expresses the which means sufficiently, why trouble with superfluous issues like verbs?

A sport of “Yes, you do” – “No, I don’t” seems like “Welles!” – “Nietes!” in Dutch

Much like in French, there are two phrases for sure. A easy affirmation is ja (French: oui); a negation of a damaging is jawel (French: si)

Grammatica 4-2 ~ More pronouns[edit]


Recall the next from Gesprek 3-1:

full mijn jouw zijn haar
inflected mijne jouwe zijne hare
clitic m’n je z’n d’r
Ja. En daarna breng je me op je motor naar huis.

Which interprets as:

‘Yes. And after that you simply take me house on your bike’.

The sentence demonstrates one of many possessive pronouns. In the singular these are

‘my’, ‘your’, and ‘his/her/its’ in English
mijn, jouw and zijn/haar/(zijn) in Dutch.

The neuter zijn for its is just not used very a lot in Dutch, as we will see in lesson 8 it typically will get changed by “ervan”.

The above pronouns like jouw typically flip right into a weak (clitic) kind je that’s used when the emphasis is on one thing else, such because the bike on this case. In the spoken language this holds for all those proven within the desk, however within the written language je is probably the most usually accepted clitic. When written they’re:

m’n, je and z’n/d’r/(z’n)

Dutch doesn’t have a possessive case as English does. In English one may say this home of mine, the place mine (and yours, hers, his, ours, yours, theirs) is possessive case. Dutch makes use of goal case for this: dit huis van mij as if ‘van’ (of) is a preposition.

However, for a sentence like is that this yours or his? Dutch would use nominalized pronouns (pronouns changed into nouns) with an inflection -e normally accompanied by a particular pronoun de or het:

Is dit het jouwe of het zijne? – Is this yours or his?
full uw ons jullie hun
inflected uwe onze hunne

The possessive for the well mannered 2nd particular person pronoun u is uw and within the south this identical phrase is used to seek advice from the gij pronoun (however no formal utilization is implied). Uw doesn’t have a clitic kind and the identical could be stated concerning the possessives of the plural. Uw does have an inflected kind uwe used for nominalization.

Dit is uw huis – that is your own home
Dit is het uwe! – that is yours

For the third particular person plural the possessive is hun and it follows the identical sample:

Dat is hun auto – that is their home
Dat is het hunne! – that is theirs

For the primary particular person plural Dutch has ons. This is the one one which follows the principles for inflection of the adjectives. I.e. its inflected kind is used for de-words however not for het-words:

het huis – ons huis
de huizen – onze huizen.
de auto – onze auto

The inflected kind is as soon as once more additionally used for nominalization:

Dat is het onze! – that’s ours!

For the second particular person plural the possessive is jullie which can’t be inflected and can’t be used as a noun, which necessitates a building involving van:

Dat is jullie huis
Dat is dat van jullie
Dat is jullie auto
Dat is die van jullie!

See Dutch/Appendix 3 for a desk of the possessive pronouns.


Practice the possessive pronouns at Quizlet (24 time period, consists of demonstrative and reciprocal pronouns)


In English, this is used as demonstrative pronoun to point one thing in proximity. That signifies larger distance. In Dutch the same distinction exists, however gender performs a task:

de trein → deze trein – this prepare
het huis → dit huis – this home

So, one replaces ‘de’ by deze and ‘het’ by dit.

At a larger distance:

de trein → die trein
het huis → dat huis

Notice that usually when English has th, Dutch can have d:

the – de
that – dat
suppose – denk

A 3rd, much more distant pronoun exists (gene, gindse), however it’s about as frequent as its English equal yon, yonder.

Again, the 2 languages betray their kinship. In some phrases, a g in Dutch corresponds to a y in English.. Compare:

gisteren – yesterday
de gist – the yeast
geel – yellow

Using demonstrative pronouns as a substitute of non-public pronouns[edit]


Die heb ik echt nodig, hoor!

As now we have seen Dutch is on its strategy to a two-gender system. For inanimate nouns, this makes demonstrative pronouns a extra enticing option to refer issues by than private pronouns. Compare:

shut far def. indef.
gender private demonstrative article
neuter het dit dat het een
masculine hij deze die de
female zij
(plural) zij

As you see demonstratives don’t distinguish whether or not a phrase is female or masculine and observe the identical common-neuter sample because the articles. Compare:

Ik zie Jan. Hij is sterk – I see John. He is robust.
Ik zie zijn auto. Die is duur. – I see his automotive. It is dear.

Note: as a result of de auto is just not neuter, it’s not right to say: Het is duur. But saying hij is duur or zij is duur makes the phrase particularly masculine or female. Using die avoids the difficulty, as a result of die follows the frequent gender sample of the particular article.

Increasingly, private pronouns are reserved for reference to individuals (pure gender as in English). To seek advice from issues folks resort to substituting the demonstratives.

Reflexive and Reciprocal pronouns[edit]

In English reflexive pronouns at all times carry the ending -self -selves: myself, themselves and so forth. In Dutch that’s not at all times so. In reality, for a verb that’s at all times reflexive, like zich vergissen (to be mistaken) the ending can’t be used:

Ik vergis me
Jij vergist je, u vergist u/zich
Hij/zij vergist zich
Wij vergissen ons
Jullie vergissen je
Zij vergissen zich

In different phrases the reflexive pronoun is equivalent to the clitic object type of the private pronoun, besides within the third particular person the place it’s zich. The pronoun u was initially a 3rd particular person (It stems from U.E. uwe edele, one thing like: your the Aristocracy, your honor) which explains the zich for this pronoun.

Vergissen can solely be used with zich, however some verbs can be utilized with or with no reflexive pronoun. In that case -zelf could also be added:

Ik was me/mij/mezelf/mijzelf. – I wash myself.

This subject is revisited in Lesson 16

The most vital reciprocal pronoun is elkaar – one another

Zij ontmoeten elkaar – They met one another.

Grammatica 4-3 Plural of nouns[edit]

We have already got seen some issues concerning the plural above:

  1. the plural particular article is at all times de (for all genders),
  2. there isn’t a indefinite article, however the damaging geen can be utilized.
  3. the demonstrative pronouns are deze and die
  4. the private pronoun is zij or its weak kind ze.

Forming the plural of the noun itself is a little more sophisticated. In English it’s principally at all times carried out with -s, however in Dutch that’s completely different

Recall: …tafels en stoelen

With few exceptions like ox – oxen just about all phrases merely get an -s in English. Dutch nevertheless has two primary methods to kind a plural: by including -s and by including -en. The latter is pronounced /-ən/, /-ə/ and even as a syllabic /-n/ relying on the area.

Which plural applies is finest realized case by case as gender is, though we will try a normal rule:

Definition (

Words of a couple of syllable get -s, in the event that they finish in:
  1. e+liquid: -el, -em, -en, -er,
  2. -aar, -ier
  3. vowels: -a, -e, -i, -o, -u and -y, -oe ,

All others get -en.


The ones in -a, -o, -i and -y get an apostrophe earlier than the -s

child – child’s

Unfortunately there are many exceptions. Many latest (latinate) loans from English or French and all diminutives get a -s.

de tafel – de tafels
de familie – de families
het meisje – de meisjes

Words in -te and -aar normally get -s:

de hoogte – de hoogtes
de kandelaar – de kandelaars

Amongst the numerous phrases that get -en are those in -ing:

de helling – de hellingen

Vowel adjustments[edit]

Most monosyllabic phrases have -en within the plural:

de stoel – de stoelen
het raam – de ramen

In the latter case, discover that one of many a’s is dropped within the spelling of the plural. This problem is said to the truth that most Dutch vowels happen in two varieties, a closed one and an open one. Dutch spelling has a relatively ingenious and systematic manner of denoting which one is meant. It entails the doubling of both vowels or consonants. Compare:

het bot /bɔt/ (the bone) has an open vowel /ɔ/ like British pot (or American paw)
de boot /bot/ (the boat) sounds very similar to British boat.

In this case the vowels stay the identical within the plural, however discover the doubling:

het bot – de botten [‘bɔtə(n)] (bot-ten)
de boot – de boten [‘botə(n)] (bo-ten)

It is customary to name the primary sound [ɔ] a ‘quick o’ and the second [o] a ‘lengthy o’, however this terminology could be relatively complicated. There are languages like Czech or Gàidhlig the place vowels are certainly distinguished purely on their size. In Dutch, nevertheless, the distinction in size (amount) is definitely fairly negligible, however the distinction in vowel sound (high quality) is just not. This presents an issue for audio system of the numerous languages with a five-vowel system, like Italian, Russian, Arabic or isiXhosa whose ears should not accustomed to this type of distinction. Anglophones normally do fairly effectively.

The following 5 vowels possess open (‘lengthy’) and coated (‘quick’) varieties:

letter open coated
a [a] [ɑ]
e [e] [ɛ]
i [i] [ɪ]
o [o] [ɔ]
u [y] [ɵ]

The Dutch spelling rule[edit]

Definition (
The Dutch Spelling Rule is:

an ‘open’ syllable that ends in a vowel resembling bo- has an open vowel that seems like boat /o/,
a ‘closed’ one which ends in a consonant, like bot- has a coated vowel like pot (/ɔ/).

If the alternative is desired, both the vowel is doubled (→ boot) or the consonant (→ botten).

The vowel i is an exception; its open kind is written as ie, not ii.


Vowel adjustments[edit]

For non-native audio system a complication arises in these instances the place the precise vowel adjustments (‘lengthens’) within the plural, examine:

dat pad (/pɑt/) – die paden (/’padən/ – vowel adjustments) (that path – these paths)
die pad (/pɑt/) – die padden (/’pɑdən/ – no vowel change) (that toad – these toads)

The vowel /ɑ/ in pad and padden is roughly as in father. Paden has a vowel /a/ like in broad American ‘Oh, my God’ (In Dutch the spelling could be: Gaad). Also, discover the gender distinction of the 2 phrases.

de pad toad
het pad path, path
de stad path, path
het schip ship
de beleefdheid politeness
het variety baby
het lam lamb

Vowel change is systematic within the plural of the previous of sure sturdy verbs (class 4 and 5; see 6).

ik zat (/zɑt/) – wij zaten (/zatən/) (I sat – we sat)

A number of phrases present vowel adjustments apart from between the open and closed number of the identical vowel:

de stad – de steden (metropolis).
het schip – de schepen (ship)

Words ending in -heid get -heden:

beleefdheid – beleefdheden


There are a couple of dozen plurals in Dutch that finish in -eren:

het variety – de kinderen (baby – babyren)
het lam – de lammeren (lamb)

The ending -eren is actually a double plural. It derives from a plural in -er and in some compounds that’s nonetheless seen:

de kinderkamer – the youngsters’s room
de lammergier – a species of vulture


Some phrases in -ie have an -en plural that requires a diaeresis (trema in Dutch). The spelling is dependent upon the place the stress falls:

de kolonie colony
de dynastie dynasty
de zee sea
de diatomee diatom
het museum museum
de chemicus chemist
de disaster disaster
de kolónie – de kolóniën
de dynastíé – de dynastíéën

Notice that in Dutch orthography the stress of a phrase cán be indicated with an acute accent, however that is solely permitted if in any other case ambiguity would possibly come up.

A trema (diaeresis) can be used after -ee:

de zee – de zeeën
de diatomee – de diatomeeën

Changes of consonants[edit]

If the basis of the phrase ends in a -z of -v that is each written and pronounced as -s and -f within the singular, however the voiced consonant returns in a plural on -en:

de baas – de bazen
de raaf – de raven
de duif – de duiven

Such phrases sometimes have a ‘lengthy’ vowel (aa on this case) or diphthong.

With quick vowel the consonant sometimes stays unvoiced and is doubled within the plural

de plas – de plassen
de klos – de klossen

Lieden, lui[edit]

Some compounds of -man have a plural involving lieden or lui (folks)

de timmerman – de timmerlieden, de timmerlui

Classical plurals[edit]

Occasionally a Latin or Greek plural is preserved in Dutch:

het museum – de musea
de chemicus – de chemici
de disaster – de crises
het dogma – de dogmata , dogma’s

YOUR TURN – UW BEURT!! • Lesson 4 • Plurals

Try to kind the plural of the next phrase. Indicate if there may be any vowel change concerned:

  1. het hoofd -the head
  2. het dak – the roof
  3. de bak – the container
  4. de zak – the bag
  5. de zaak – the enterprise
  6. het zaakje – the affair
  7. de opera – the opera
  8. het rad – the wheel
  9. het dangerous – the bathtub
  10. de lepel – the spoon
  11. de digital camera – the digital camera
  12. de robotic – the robotic
  13. het baken – the beacon
  14. het schip – the ship
  15. het gebod – the commandment
  16. de stelling – the thesis, the (army) put up
  17. het wapen – the weapon
  18. de vleugel – the wing
  19. de musicus – the musician

SOLUTION • Dutch/Lesson 4 • Plurals

  1. het hoofd – hoofden
  2. het dak – daken (lengthening)
  3. de bak – bakken
  4. de zak – zakken
  5. de zaak – zaken
  6. het zaakje – zaakjes
  7. de opera – opera’s
  8. het rad – raderen (-eren plural + lengthening)
  9. het dangerous – baden (lengthening)
  10. de lepel – lepels
  11. de digital camera – digital camera’s
  12. de robotic – robots (
  13. het baken – bakens
  14. het schip – schepen (vowel change)
  15. het gebod – geboden (lengthening)
  16. de stelling – stellingen
  17. het wapen – wapens, (additionally: wapenen)
  18. de vleugel – vleugels (poetic: vleugelen)
  19. de musicus – musici (

Woordenlijst 4[edit]


The vocabulary or this lesson could be practiced at Quizlet (28 phrases)

Progress made[edit]

Cumulative depend

Pronunciation Guide>>


The vocabulary or this lesson could be practiced at Quizlet (28 phrases)

Progress made[edit]

If you could have totally studied the above lesson it’s best to

  1. have extra information of pronouns (poss. dem, reflex, and reciprocal)
  2. know the way plurals are shaped
  3. know the Dutch spelling rule that governs the doubling of vowels and consonants

Cumulative vocabulary depend

Lesson 1+ : 226
Lesson 2+ : 161
Lesson 3+ : 89
Lesson 4: 52
Grand whole
528 phrases

Pronunciation Guide>>


  1. or indefinite pronoun in different grammars

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