Beginner degree: cycle 1
Les 4 ~ Lesson 4
Studeren ~ Student Life
|• Indefinite and damaging articles|
|• Grammar: More pronouns|
|• Grammar: Plural of nouns|
|• Orthography: The Dutch spelling rule|
Fill within the clean 4-1-F
- Peter zegt dat hij die stoelen en tafels echt heeft.
- Peter wil Elly voor een etentje.
- Zijn vader zegt: zul je bedoelen!
- Zijn zoon aan de universiteit.
Grammatica 4-1 ~ The indefinite articles een en geen
- …chairs and a desk … stoelen en een tafel
- …has no cash… heeft geen geld
In the earlier lesson you have been launched to the particular articles—’the’ in English and het or de in Dutch. Indefinite articles precede nouns in the identical manner that particular articles do, however convey a normal or indefinite sense. These are ‘a’ or ‘an’ in English. Thus, ‘the e-book’ or het boek refers to a particular or particular e-book, whereas ‘a e-book’ or een boek is indefinite about which e-book is referred to. If your mom tongue doesn’t have articles (resembling Russian, Polish and so forth.) do that.
Dutch indefinite articles solely are available one kind (een), so they do not show gender.
The use of particular and indefinite articles is just about the identical as in English. The few deviations are finest realized when listening to the language or talking it.
|een||de||masculine/female||de tafel – een tafel (the desk – a desk)|
|een||het||neuter||het raam – een raam (the window – a window)|
Please observe (see additionally earlier lesson) that the indefinite article has the identical kind because the numeral one (één). One may argue that one is a clitic type of the opposite. To denote the distinction, one may place accents on the numeral. Also, there’s a distinction in pronunciation. The numeral één (one) is pronounced /e:n/, the article een (a) with a a lot weaker /ən/. Occasionally Dutch has one and English the opposite:
- op een middag – one afternoon
Notice that one is used right here within the which means of a sure, not say in distinction to 2 or three.
There is an inflected kind ene that’s used independently:
- Occasionally Dutch has one, English the opposite.
- Soms heeft Nederlands het ene, Engels het andere
In English a damaging of an indefinite article is solely shaped by including not:
- it is a automotive
- that is not a automotive
Alternatively one can drop the article and say:
- that is no automotive.
In Dutch there’s a particular damaging of een:
- dit is een auto
- dit is geen auto.
Geen is used each with singular and with plural indefinite nouns
- dat zijn eenden — these are geese
- dat zijn geen eenden — these should not geese
Relation to niet
The mixture niet + een is just utilized in contrasting issues:
- dit is niet een fuut maar een eend.
- that is not a grebe however a duck.
With particular nouns negation entails including niet, normally at finish:
- dat is de auto
- dat is de auto niet
- Notice that geen is an article. It negates the noun.
- By distinction niet is an adverb. It negates the verb.
Notice additionally that Dutch doesn’t use the auxiliary verb to do for negations:
- Hij zag de auto niet – he didn’t see the automotive
- Hij zag geen eenden – he didn’t see any geese
Relation to wel
When a damaging is negated Dutch makes use of the adverb wel to precise that. English has to make use of a building involving the verb to do:
- Heb je geen geld? — Jawel, ik heb wel geld.
- Don’t you could have cash — Yes, I do have cash
This adverb can be used for contrasting:
- Hij heeft geen auto, maar wel een motor.
- He has no automotive, however he does have a motorcycle.
Notice that the second a part of the Dutch sentence doesn’t also have a verb. Dutch is sort of an ‘adverbial’ language. If the adverb expresses the which means sufficiently, why trouble with superfluous issues like verbs?
A sport of “Yes, you do” – “No, I don’t” seems like “Welles!” – “Nietes!” in Dutch
Much like in French, there are two phrases for sure. A easy affirmation is ja (French: oui); a negation of a damaging is jawel (French: si)
Grammatica 4-2 ~ More pronouns
Recall the next from Gesprek 3-1:
- Ja. En daarna breng je me op je motor naar huis.
Which interprets as:
- ‘Yes. And after that you simply take me house on your bike’.
The sentence demonstrates one of many possessive pronouns. In the singular these are
- ‘my’, ‘your’, and ‘his/her/its’ in English
- mijn, jouw and zijn/haar/(zijn) in Dutch.
The neuter zijn for its is just not used very a lot in Dutch, as we will see in lesson 8 it typically will get changed by “ervan”.
The above pronouns like jouw typically flip right into a weak (clitic) kind je that’s used when the emphasis is on one thing else, such because the bike on this case. In the spoken language this holds for all those proven within the desk, however within the written language je is probably the most usually accepted clitic. When written they’re:
- m’n, je and z’n/d’r/(z’n)
Dutch doesn’t have a possessive case as English does. In English one may say this home of mine, the place mine (and yours, hers, his, ours, yours, theirs) is possessive case. Dutch makes use of goal case for this: dit huis van mij as if ‘van’ (of) is a preposition.
However, for a sentence like is that this yours or his? Dutch would use nominalized pronouns (pronouns changed into nouns) with an inflection -e normally accompanied by a particular pronoun de or het:
- Is dit het jouwe of het zijne? – Is this yours or his?
The possessive for the well mannered 2nd particular person pronoun u is uw and within the south this identical phrase is used to seek advice from the gij pronoun (however no formal utilization is implied). Uw doesn’t have a clitic kind and the identical could be stated concerning the possessives of the plural. Uw does have an inflected kind uwe used for nominalization.
- Dit is uw huis – that is your own home
- Dit is het uwe! – that is yours
For the third particular person plural the possessive is hun and it follows the identical sample:
- Dat is hun auto – that is their home
- Dat is het hunne! – that is theirs
For the primary particular person plural Dutch has ons. This is the one one which follows the principles for inflection of the adjectives. I.e. its inflected kind is used for de-words however not for het-words:
- het huis – ons huis
- de huizen – onze huizen.
- de auto – onze auto
The inflected kind is as soon as once more additionally used for nominalization:
- Dat is het onze! – that’s ours!
For the second particular person plural the possessive is jullie which can’t be inflected and can’t be used as a noun, which necessitates a building involving van:
- Dat is jullie huis
- Dat is dat van jullie
- Dat is jullie auto
- Dat is die van jullie!
See Dutch/Appendix 3 for a desk of the possessive pronouns.
Practice the possessive pronouns at Quizlet (24 time period, consists of demonstrative and reciprocal pronouns)
In English, this is used as demonstrative pronoun to point one thing in proximity. That signifies larger distance. In Dutch the same distinction exists, however gender performs a task:
- de trein → deze trein – this prepare
- het huis → dit huis – this home
So, one replaces ‘de’ by deze and ‘het’ by dit.
At a larger distance:
- de trein → die trein
- het huis → dat huis
Notice that usually when English has th, Dutch can have d:
- the – de
- that – dat
- suppose – denk
A 3rd, much more distant pronoun exists (gene, gindse), however it’s about as frequent as its English equal yon, yonder.
Again, the 2 languages betray their kinship. In some phrases, a g in Dutch corresponds to a y in English.. Compare:
- gisteren – yesterday
- de gist – the yeast
- geel – yellow
Using demonstrative pronouns as a substitute of non-public pronouns
- Die heb ik echt nodig, hoor!
As now we have seen Dutch is on its strategy to a two-gender system. For inanimate nouns, this makes demonstrative pronouns a extra enticing option to refer issues by than private pronouns. Compare:
As you see demonstratives don’t distinguish whether or not a phrase is female or masculine and observe the identical common-neuter sample because the articles. Compare:
- Ik zie Jan. Hij is sterk – I see John. He is robust.
- Ik zie zijn auto. Die is duur. – I see his automotive. It is dear.
Note: as a result of de auto is just not neuter, it’s not right to say: Het is duur. But saying hij is duur or zij is duur makes the phrase particularly masculine or female. Using die avoids the difficulty, as a result of die follows the frequent gender sample of the particular article.
Increasingly, private pronouns are reserved for reference to individuals (pure gender as in English). To seek advice from issues folks resort to substituting the demonstratives.
Reflexive and Reciprocal pronouns
In English reflexive pronouns at all times carry the ending -self -selves: myself, themselves and so forth. In Dutch that’s not at all times so. In reality, for a verb that’s at all times reflexive, like zich vergissen (to be mistaken) the ending can’t be used:
- Ik vergis me
- Jij vergist je, u vergist u/zich
- Hij/zij vergist zich
- Wij vergissen ons
- Jullie vergissen je
- Zij vergissen zich
In different phrases the reflexive pronoun is equivalent to the clitic object type of the private pronoun, besides within the third particular person the place it’s zich. The pronoun u was initially a 3rd particular person (It stems from U.E. uwe edele, one thing like: your the Aristocracy, your honor) which explains the zich for this pronoun.
Vergissen can solely be used with zich, however some verbs can be utilized with or with no reflexive pronoun. In that case -zelf could also be added:
Ik was me/mij/mezelf/mijzelf. – I wash myself.
This subject is revisited in Lesson 16
The most vital reciprocal pronoun is elkaar – one another
- Zij ontmoeten elkaar – They met one another.
Grammatica 4-3 Plural of nouns
We have already got seen some issues concerning the plural above:
- the plural particular article is at all times de (for all genders),
- there isn’t a indefinite article, however the damaging geen can be utilized.
- the demonstrative pronouns are deze and die
- the private pronoun is zij or its weak kind ze.
Forming the plural of the noun itself is a little more sophisticated. In English it’s principally at all times carried out with -s, however in Dutch that’s completely different
Recall: …tafels en stoelen…
With few exceptions like ox – oxen just about all phrases merely get an -s in English. Dutch nevertheless has two primary methods to kind a plural: by including -s and by including -en. The latter is pronounced /-ən/, /-ə/ and even as a syllabic /-n/ relying on the area.
Which plural applies is finest realized case by case as gender is, though we will try a normal rule:
The ones in -a, -o, -i and -y get an apostrophe earlier than the -s
- child – child’s
Unfortunately there are many exceptions. Many latest (latinate) loans from English or French and all diminutives get a -s.
- de tafel – de tafels
- de familie – de families
- het meisje – de meisjes
Words in -te and -aar normally get -s:
- de hoogte – de hoogtes
- de kandelaar – de kandelaars
Amongst the numerous phrases that get -en are those in -ing:
- de helling – de hellingen
Most monosyllabic phrases have -en within the plural:
- de stoel – de stoelen
- het raam – de ramen
In the latter case, discover that one of many a’s is dropped within the spelling of the plural. This problem is said to the truth that most Dutch vowels happen in two varieties, a closed one and an open one. Dutch spelling has a relatively ingenious and systematic manner of denoting which one is meant. It entails the doubling of both vowels or consonants. Compare:
- het bot /bɔt/ (the bone) has an open vowel /ɔ/ like British pot (or American paw)
- de boot /bot/ (the boat) sounds very similar to British boat.
In this case the vowels stay the identical within the plural, however discover the doubling:
- het bot – de botten [‘bɔtə(n)] (bot-ten)
- de boot – de boten [‘botə(n)] (bo-ten)
It is customary to name the primary sound [ɔ] a ‘quick o’ and the second [o] a ‘lengthy o’, however this terminology could be relatively complicated. There are languages like Czech or Gàidhlig the place vowels are certainly distinguished purely on their size. In Dutch, nevertheless, the distinction in size (amount) is definitely fairly negligible, however the distinction in vowel sound (high quality) is just not. This presents an issue for audio system of the numerous languages with a five-vowel system, like Italian, Russian, Arabic or isiXhosa whose ears should not accustomed to this type of distinction. Anglophones normally do fairly effectively.
The following 5 vowels possess open (‘lengthy’) and coated (‘quick’) varieties:
The Dutch spelling rule
For non-native audio system a complication arises in these instances the place the precise vowel adjustments (‘lengthens’) within the plural, examine:
- dat pad (/pɑt/) – die paden (/’padən/ – vowel adjustments) (that path – these paths)
- die pad (/pɑt/) – die padden (/’pɑdən/ – no vowel change) (that toad – these toads)
The vowel /ɑ/ in pad and padden is roughly as in father. Paden has a vowel /a/ like in broad American ‘Oh, my God’ (In Dutch the spelling could be: Gaad). Also, discover the gender distinction of the 2 phrases.
|het pad||path, path|
|de stad||path, path|
Vowel change is systematic within the plural of the previous of sure sturdy verbs (class 4 and 5; see 6).
- ik zat (/zɑt/) – wij zaten (/zatən/) (I sat – we sat)
A number of phrases present vowel adjustments apart from between the open and closed number of the identical vowel:
- de stad – de steden (metropolis).
- het schip – de schepen (ship)
Words ending in -heid get -heden:
- beleefdheid – beleefdheden
There are a couple of dozen plurals in Dutch that finish in -eren:
- het variety – de kinderen (baby – babyren)
- het lam – de lammeren (lamb)
The ending -eren is actually a double plural. It derives from a plural in -er and in some compounds that’s nonetheless seen:
- de kinderkamer – the youngsters’s room
- de lammergier – a species of vulture
Some phrases in -ie have an -en plural that requires a diaeresis (trema in Dutch). The spelling is dependent upon the place the stress falls:
- de kolónie – de kolóniën
- de dynastíé – de dynastíéën
Notice that in Dutch orthography the stress of a phrase cán be indicated with an acute accent, however that is solely permitted if in any other case ambiguity would possibly come up.
A trema (diaeresis) can be used after -ee:
- de zee – de zeeën
- de diatomee – de diatomeeën
Changes of consonants
If the basis of the phrase ends in a -z of -v that is each written and pronounced as -s and -f within the singular, however the voiced consonant returns in a plural on -en:
- de baas – de bazen
- de raaf – de raven
- de duif – de duiven
Such phrases sometimes have a ‘lengthy’ vowel (aa on this case) or diphthong.
With quick vowel the consonant sometimes stays unvoiced and is doubled within the plural
- de plas – de plassen
- de klos – de klossen
Some compounds of -man have a plural involving lieden or lui (folks)
- de timmerman – de timmerlieden, de timmerlui
Occasionally a Latin or Greek plural is preserved in Dutch:
- het museum – de musea
- de chemicus – de chemici
- de disaster – de crises
- het dogma – de dogmata , dogma’s
The vocabulary or this lesson could be practiced at Quizlet (28 phrases)
The vocabulary or this lesson could be practiced at Quizlet (28 phrases)
If you could have totally studied the above lesson it’s best to
- have extra information of pronouns (poss. dem, reflex, and reciprocal)
- know the way plurals are shaped
- know the Dutch spelling rule that governs the doubling of vowels and consonants
Cumulative vocabulary depend
- Lesson 1+ : 226
- Lesson 2+ : 161
- Lesson 3+ : 89
- Lesson 4: 52
- Grand whole
- 528 phrases
- or indefinite pronoun in different grammars