Sounds and Alphabet
Like different Turkic languages of Central Asia (e.g., Kazakh) Kyrgyz makes use of the Cyryllic (Russian) alphabet. The sounds represented are usually just like these in Russian, with a couple of exceptions.
Аа—Like the vowel in English “hall.”
Бб—Like English “b” in “boy.” Between vowels, typically like English “w.”
Вв—Like “v”in “void”
Гг—At the start of phrases,like “g” in “grin.” Between vowels, like a cross between “g” and the “h” in hat, or a kind of gurgle just like the French “r”.
Дд—Like “d” in “delta” – that’s, made with the tongue off of the higher entrance tooth.
Ее—At the start of a phrase, just like the “ye” in “yet.” In the center or on the finish of a phrase, just like the vowel in “let.”
Ёё—A “yo” sound, with a a lot purer “o” than that usually present in English.
Жж—Like the “j” in “judge.” (In loan phrases from Russian, just like the “ge” in “rouge.”)
Зз—Like the “z” in “zebra.”
Ии—Like the “ee” in “bee.”
Йй—Like the “y” in “buoy.”
Кк—Like the “c” in “cat.”
Лл—Like the “l” in “like.”
Мм—Like the “m” in “make.”
Нн—Like the “n” in “new.”
Ӊӊ—Like the “ng” in “sang.”
Оо—Like the “o” in “bottle.”
Өө—Like the vowel in English “turn,” or, just like the German “ö”
Пп—Like the vowel in “speech”—that’s, an unaspirated “p.”
Рр—Rolled r, however normally pronounced with only a single flap of the tongue (as in Spanish “pero”)
Сс—Like the “s” in “slip.”
Тт—Like the “t” in “stick” —- That is, an unaspirated “t.”
Уу—Like the vowel in “flu”
Үү—Like the German “ü”—If you spherical your lips to say the “u” sound talked about above, however as an alternative try to make the vowel in “mean,” the ensuing sound will probably be no less than a really shut approximation.
Фф—Like the “f” in “flew.”
Хх—A harsh sound made at the back of the throat, just like the German “doch.”
Цц—Like the “ts” in “cats.”
Чч—Like the “ch” in “punch.”
Шш—Like “sh” in “sheet.”
Щщ—A kind of “sh-ch,” just like the “shch” in “fish chunks” whether it is stated rapidly.
Ъъ—A brief pause.
Ыы—Like the primary vowel in “around”
Ьь—A palatization of the previous consonant.
Ээ—Like the “e” in “let.”
Юю—Like the English phrase “you.”
Яя—Like the “ya” in “yawn.”
The letters “ц,щ,ъ,and “ь are used only in loan-words taken from Russian. In spite of the differences in some sounds, Russian words are generally pronounced as they sound in Russian (thus, in a Russian word, “Ы sounds more like the “i” in “ill.”)
The letters ӊ,ө,and ү are usually not discovered within the Russian alphabet.
Voiced and Voiceless Consonants
Consonants are usually divided into two classes, the so-called “voiced” and “voiceless.” When making voiced consonants or vowels, you employ your vocal cords, whereas unvoiced consonants are made with out the vibration of the vocal cords. An simple strategy to check whether or not a consonant is voiced or not is to say the consonant whereas plugging your ears. If you hear a buzzing or rumbling inside your head, then the consonant is voiced.
Voiceless consonants in Kyrgyz are х,ч,т,п,к,ш, and с. Kyrgyz takes many loan phrases from Russian and different languages, and these phrases can embrace the opposite unvoiced consonants ц,щ,and ф. All of the opposite consonants are voiced.
Voiceless consonants typically have correspondences to voiced consonants. For instance, the one distinction between т and д is that within the latter consonant, the vocal cords are used Otherwise, it’s the identical sound.
The voiced/unvoiced consonant pairs—that’s, the letters which are apt to vary from one to a different—are т/д, п/б, and к/г1. This is essential as a result of typically, suffixes could be modified on the premise of the final letter within the phrase, or they will at instances change the final letter from a unvoiced to a voiced consonant. Generally, if a suffix begins with consonant, it’ll change to match the kind of consonant on the finish of the phrase to which it’s being added. So if a suffix begins with a д (which is a voiced consonant), and it’s being added to a phrase that ends in a п (which is a unvoiced consonant), then the voiced д will develop into a unvoiced т.
Also, if a phrase ends in a unvoiced consonant, and a suffix that begins with a vowel is added to it, then the final consonant of the phrase is modified to a voiced consonant. So within the case of the phrase китеп (e book), in the event you want to add the primary individual possessive suffix (on this case, “-им ”) in order to say “my book,” it’ll come out “китебим.”
If this rationalization is complicated, it might be higher to go away it behind. If you hear the language spoken a bit of bit, you will catch on.
Suffixes and Vowel Harmony
Kyrgyz is an agglutinative language, which signifies that most grammatical meanings are communicated with suffixes. These can pile up on the finish of a phrase or root. This can get a bit complicated at first. However, Kyrgyz is a splendidly common language, and as soon as its logic is known, it presents few of kinds of difficulties that tyrannize learners of Russian or German.
Suffixes can look a bit of totally different from phrase to phrase, as a result of the vowels in them will change relying the final vowel within the phrase itself. These modifications work in keeping with guidelines known as “vowel harmony.”
The household of Turkic languages (to which Kyrgyz belongs) experiences a phenomenon referred to as “vowel harmony.” That signifies that the vowels in a suffix are decided in keeping with the final vowel within the phrase to which they’re being added.
Kyrgyz vowels are linked collectively in pairs, of which one is a “left” vowel and one is a “right” vowel. If a suffix wants a left vowel, then it takes the left vowel that corresponds to the final vowel within the stem.
Here are the pairs:
How it really works: “from America” is rendered “Америкадан,” whereas “from Boston” is “Бостондон.” In the first example, the idea of “from” is expressed with the suffix “-дан”, while in the second it becomes “-дон.” The form for this suffix (the “ablative“) is “-д←н,” meaning that the vowel between the д and the н is going to be the “left vowel” of the last vowel of the word to which the suffix is being added.
The last vowel in “Бостон” is “о,” and since the ablative suffix requires a left vowel, it takes the left vowel of the pair “о-у”: Hence, “Бостондон.” By the identical logic, “from Helsinki” is “Хелсинкиден”—The final vowel is ‘и’, and so right here the ablative suffix makes use of the left vowel of the pair “е-и.”
EXCEPTION: As indicated by the diagram above,though the proper vowel for “о”is“у”, the left vowel for “y” is “a.” So, the ablative for окуучу (“student”) is окуучудан, not окуучудон.* This rule, like the whole lot else to do with vowel concord, is definitely rather more simply used and mastered than it might appear at first.